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NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders AssignmentNURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment Brief

Course: NURS 6521 – Advanced Pharmacology

Assignment Title: NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment

Assignment Instructions Overview

The assignment focuses on understanding and applying pharmacotherapy principles for gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders. Students will analyze a case study to formulate a diagnosis and design a drug therapy plan based on patient symptoms, medical history, and current medications. The goal is to address the underlying cause of symptoms rather than managing them superficially.

Understanding Assignment Objectives

Students are tasked with:

  • Reviewing a provided case study to identify symptoms and pertinent medical details.
  • Formulating a diagnosis considering possible GI/hepatobiliary disorders or alternative systemic causes.
  • Developing a comprehensive drug therapy plan tailored to the patient’s specific condition and existing medications.
  • Justifying the selected drug therapy plan with evidence-based reasoning.

The Student’s Role

As a student undertaking this assignment, your role is to critically analyze clinical data, integrate pharmacotherapy knowledge, and demonstrate clinical reasoning skills. You will synthesize information from the case study to propose an effective treatment strategy that aligns with best practices in advanced nursing practice.

Competencies Measured

This assignment assesses competencies in:

  • Diagnostic reasoning: Ability to interpret symptoms and medical history to reach a logical diagnosis.
  • Pharmacotherapeutic knowledge: Application of drug therapy principles specific to GI and hepatobiliary disorders.
  • Patient-centered care: Designing a treatment plan that considers individual patient factors and preferences.
  • Evidence-based practice: Justifying treatment decisions with current research and clinical guidelines.

You Can Also Check Other Related Assessments for the NURS 6521 – Advanced Pharmacology Course:

NURS 6521 Discussion Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Asthma and Stepwise Management Assignment Presentation Example

NURS 6521 Diabetes and Drug Treatments Discussion Paper Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Decision Tree for Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Decision Making When Treating Psychological Disorders Discussion Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Off-Label Drug Use in Pediatrics Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment Example

Introduction

Gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders often present with similar symptoms, making diagnosis challenging. This paper examines a case study of a patient presenting with symptoms indicative of a GI/hepatobiliary disorder. The diagnosis, rationale, and a recommended drug therapy plan are discussed based on the patient’s medical history and current medications.

Case Study Analysis

Patient Information

  • Current Medications: Synthroid, nifedipine, prednisone
  • Symptoms: Abdominal pain, cramping, nausea, bloating, fatigue

Diagnosis

The patient likely has acute gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestines usually caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, or parasites. The symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain align with this condition (Ibrahim et al., 2016). The patient’s use of prednisone, an immunosuppressant, may increase susceptibility to infections, supporting this diagnosis.

Rationale for Diagnosis

Acute gastroenteritis is characterized by sudden onset of GI symptoms. The patient’s symptoms and the immunosuppressive nature of prednisone suggest a viral or bacterial infection as the underlying cause. Synthroid (for hypothyroidism) and nifedipine (for hypertension) do not directly relate to these symptoms but may influence the overall management plan.

Differential Diagnosis

Other conditions to consider include:

  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • Peptic Ulcer Disease
  • Hepatitis
  • Gallbladder Disease

However, the acute nature and symptom profile most strongly indicate gastroenteritis.

Drug Therapy Plan

Medication

  • Ondansetron 8mg: Administered to control nausea and vomiting by blocking serotonin receptors in the brain and gut.
  • Rehydration Solutions: Oral rehydration salts (ORS) to manage dehydration caused by diarrhea and vomiting.
  • Probiotics: To restore gut flora and reduce the duration of diarrhea.
  • Continue Prednisone with Tapering Plan: Gradually reduce prednisone dosage to prevent adrenal insufficiency and flare-ups of underlying conditions.

Justification

Ondansetron is effective in preventing nausea and vomiting, reducing discomfort and preventing further dehydration (Parker et al., 2018). ORS are crucial in managing fluid and electrolyte loss, ensuring proper hydration (CDC, 2020). Probiotics can help restore the natural balance of the gut microbiota, improving recovery from gastroenteritis (Suez & Elinav, 2017). Tapering prednisone prevents adverse effects associated with sudden discontinuation, maintaining the patient’s immune response without abrupt suppression (WebMD, n.d.).

Conclusion

The diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis is supported by the patient’s symptoms and medical history, particularly the use of prednisone. The recommended drug therapy plan, including ondansetron, ORS, probiotics, and a tapered prednisone schedule, addresses both symptom relief and underlying health maintenance. Proper management ensures effective treatment of the acute condition while safeguarding the patient’s overall health.

References

Parker, S. E., Van Bennekom, C., Anderka, M., & Mitchell, A. A. (2018). Ondansetron for treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and the risk of specific birth defects. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 132(2), 385-394.

CDC. (2020). Oral Rehydration Solutions (ORS). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/cholera/ treatment/rehydration.html

Suez, J., & Elinav, E. (2017). Probiotics in the next-generation sequencing era. Gut Microbes, 8(2), 133-136.

Batlle, L., Mattie, R., & Irwin, R. (2016). A medication combination for the treatment of central poststroke pain via the adjuvant use of prednisone with gabapentin: a case report. PM&R, 8(3), 278-281.

WebMD. (n.d.). Can tapering off prednisone cause a flare? Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/drug-medication/qa/can-tapering-off-prednisone-cause-a-flare

Detailed Assessment Instructions for the NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment

Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

Gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders affect the structure and function of the GI tract. Many of these disorders often have similar symptoms, such as abdominal pain, cramping, constipation, nausea, bloating, and fatigue. Since multiple disorders can be tied to the same symptoms, it is important for advanced practice nurses to carefully evaluate patients and prescribe a treatment that targets the cause rather than the symptom.

Once the underlying cause is identified, an appropriate drug therapy plan can be recommended based on medical history and individual patient factors. In this Assignment, you examine a case study of a patient who presents with symptoms of a possible GI/hepatobiliary disorder, and you design an appropriate drug therapy plan.

To Prepare

Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment

Reflect on the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and drugs currently prescribed.

Think about a possible diagnosis for the patient. Consider whether the patient has a disorder related to the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary system or whether the symptoms are the result of a disorder from another system or other factors, such as pregnancy, drugs, or a psychological disorder.

Consider an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.

By Day 7 of Week 4

Write a 1-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Explain your diagnosis for the patient, including your rationale for the diagnosis.
  • Describe an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
  • Justify why you would recommend this drug therapy plan for this patient. Be specific and provide examples.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 4 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 4 Assignment  You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer Find the document you saved as “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submitbutton to complete your submission.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4

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NURS 6521 Asthma and Stepwise Management Assignment Presentation Example

NURS 6521 Asthma and Stepwise Management Assignment Presentation

NURS 6521 Asthma and Stepwise Management Assignment PresentationNURS 6521 Asthma and Stepwise Management Presentation Assignment Brief

Course: NURS 6521 – Advanced Pharmacology

Assignment Title: NURS 6521 Asthma and Stepwise Management Assignment Presentation

Assignment Instructions Overview

This assignment focuses on the stepwise management of asthma, a chronic respiratory disorder affecting individuals of all ages. As an advanced practice nurse, your role in managing asthma involves recognizing symptoms, understanding triggers, and recommending appropriate treatment options. You will create a 5- to 6-slide PowerPoint presentation for a staff development meeting, detailing different approaches for implementing the stepwise approach for asthma treatment.

Understanding Assignment Objectives

The primary objectives of this assignment are to enhance your understanding of the pharmacological treatments available for asthma, including both long-term control and quick relief options, and to explore how the stepwise approach can be utilized to optimize patient care. You will also learn to effectively communicate these concepts to other healthcare providers, improving overall asthma management within your practice.

The Student’s Role

As a student, you are expected to:

  • Reflect on and review the various medications used to treat asthma, considering their impact on both adult and pediatric patients.
  • Apply the stepwise approach to a hypothetical patient scenario, demonstrating how this method assists in achieving and maintaining asthma control.
  • Develop a concise, informative presentation that educates your colleagues on these treatment strategies, highlighting the importance of tailored patient care and the role of stepwise management in clinical practice.

Competencies Measured

This assignment will assess the following competencies:

  • Pharmacological Knowledge: Understanding the different categories of asthma medications and their specific roles in long-term control and quick relief.
  • Clinical Decision-Making: Applying the stepwise approach to manage asthma effectively, adjusting treatment plans based on patient response.
  • Patient Education and Communication: Developing skills to educate patients and other healthcare providers about asthma management strategies.
  • Critical Thinking: Analyzing patient cases to determine the most appropriate treatment steps and recognizing when to escalate or de-escalate therapy.
  • Professional Presentation: Creating and delivering a professional PowerPoint presentation that clearly conveys complex medical information in an understandable manner.

You Can Also Check Other Related Assessments for the NURS 6521 – Advanced Pharmacology Course:

NURS 6521 Discussion Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Diabetes and Drug Treatments Discussion Paper Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Decision Tree for Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Decision Making When Treating Psychological Disorders Discussion Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Off-Label Drug Use in Pediatrics Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Asthma and Stepwise Management Assignment Presentation Example

Slide 1: Introduction

Asthma Overview:

  • Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that results in episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing, particularly at night or early in the morning (Gibson, 2019).
  • It affects both children and adults, with a significant global health impact.
  • Recognizing symptoms and triggers is crucial for effective management.
  • Proper treatment can prevent asthma attacks and improve quality of life (Walsh, 2019).

Slide 2: Long-Term Control Medications

Purpose:

  • Long-term control medications are designed to be taken daily to achieve and maintain control of persistent asthma.

Common Medications:

  • Inhaled Corticosteroids (ICS): Flovent (fluticasone), QVAR (beclomethasone), Pulmicort (budesonide). These medications reduce inflammation and help prevent asthma attacks (Bonewit-West, Hunt, & Applegate, 2015).
  • Long-Acting Beta Agonists (LABAs): Advair (fluticasone/salmeterol), Symbicort (budesonide/formoterol). LABAs are used in combination with ICS for better control (Bernstein & Mansfield, 2019).
  • Leukotriene Modifiers: Singulair (montelukast) helps prevent airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction.
  • Immunomodulators: Omalizumab (Xolair) is used for severe asthma that is not controlled with ICS and LABAs.

Impact on Patients:

  • These medications help prevent symptoms and exacerbations, improving overall asthma control and quality of life (Falk, Hughes, & Rodgers, 2016).
  • Potential side effects include oral candidiasis, sore throat, and potential growth reduction in children from ICS (Walsh, 2019).

Slide 3: Quick Relief Medications

Purpose:

  • Quick relief medications are used to provide immediate relief from acute asthma symptoms and attacks.

Common Medications:

  • Short-Acting Beta Agonists (SABAs): Albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin), Levalbuterol (Xopenex). These bronchodilators relax the muscles around the airways (Gibson, 2019).
  • Anticholinergics: Ipratropium (Atrovent) can be used for quick relief in combination with SABAs.
  • Systemic Corticosteroids: Prednisone is used for severe exacerbations to reduce inflammation.

Impact on Patients:

  • These medications provide fast relief of bronchoconstriction and acute symptoms, allowing patients to breathe more easily (Craig, 2014).
  • Side effects can include increased heart rate, anxiety, dizziness (from SABAs), and potential overuse leading to severe attacks (Walsh, 2019).

Slide 4: The Stepwise Approach Explained

Step-Up Therapy:

  • Begin with low-dose treatment; increase gradually if asthma control is not achieved.
  • For example, if a patient on low-dose ICS is not well-controlled, the dosage can be increased or a LABA can be added (Bernstein & Mansfield, 2019).

Step-Down Therapy:

  • Start with higher doses; reduce gradually as asthma control improves.
  • This approach minimizes medication exposure and side effects while maintaining control.

Application:

  • Tailor treatment based on individual patient response and control levels.
  • Adjustments are made in a structured manner to optimize asthma management (Craig, 2014).

Slide 5: Benefits of Stepwise Management

For Health Care Providers:

  • Provides a clear, structured approach to adjusting medications.
  • Complements clinical decision-making and ensures that each patient’s treatment is optimized based on their specific needs (Falk, Hughes, & Rodgers, 2016).

For Patients:

  • Improves overall asthma control and quality of life.
  • Simplifies medication regimens, making it easier for patients to adhere to their treatment plans (Bonewit-West, Hunt, & Applegate, 2015).
  • Reduces the risk of severe exacerbations and hospitalizations (Gibson, 2019).

Slide 6: Conclusion

Summary:

  • Asthma management requires a combination of long-term control and quick relief medications.
  • The stepwise approach allows for flexible, patient-centered care.
  • Continuous monitoring and adjustment of therapy are essential for optimal asthma control (Craig, 2014).

Final Thought:

  • Implementing the stepwise approach in clinical practice enhances disease control and patient outcomes, supporting both healthcare providers and patients in managing asthma effectively (Bernstein & Mansfield, 2019).

References

Bernstein, J. A., & Mansfield, L. (2019). Step-up and step-down treatments for optimal asthma control in children and adolescents. Journal of Asthma, 56(7), 758-770.

Bonewit-West, K., Hunt, S., & Applegate, E. (2015). Today’s Medical Assistant: Clinical & Administrative Procedures. London, UK: Elsevier Saunders.

Craig, T. J. (2014). Physician implementation of asthma management guidelines and recommendations: 2 case studies. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 114(11), eS4-eS15.

Falk, N. P., Hughes, S. W., & Rodgers, B. C. (2016). Medications for chronic asthma. American Family Physician, 94(6), 454-462.

Gibson, P. (2019). Monitoring Asthma. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis.

Walsh, B. K. (2019). Neonatal and Pediatric Respiratory Care. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Detailed Assessment Instructions for the NURS 6521 Asthma and Stepwise Management Assignment Presentation

Assignment: Asthma and Stepwise Management

Asthma is a respiratory disorder that affects children and adults. Advanced practice nurses often provide treatment to patients with these disorders. Sometimes patients require immediate treatment, making it essential that you recognize and distinguish minor asthma symptoms from serious, life-threatening ones. Since symptoms and attacks are often induced by a trigger, advanced practice nurses must also help patients identify their triggers and recommend appropriate management options. Like many other disorders, there are various approaches to treating and managing care for asthmatic patients depending on individual patient factors.

One method that supports the clinical decision making of drug therapy plans for asthmatic patients is the stepwise approach, which you explore in this Assignment.

To Prepare

  • Reflect on drugs used to treat asthmatic patients, including long-term control and quick relief treatment options for patients. Think about the impact these drugs might have on patients, including adults and children.
  • Consider how you might apply the stepwise approach to address the health needs of a patient in your practice.
  • Reflect on how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease.

By Day 7 of Week 3

Create a 5- to 6-slide PowerPoint presentation that can be used in a staff development meeting on presenting different approaches for implementing the stepwise approach for asthma treatment. Be sure to address the following:

  • Describe long-term control and quick relief treatment options for the asthma patient from your practice as well as the impact these drugs might have on your patient.
  • Explain the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management for your patient.
  • Explain how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease. Be specific.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK3Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment  You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer Find the document you saved as “WK3Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submitbutton to complete your submission.
  • NOTE: SafeAssign does not accept files over 10MB in size. Please attempt to keep your files under 10MB.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 3

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NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders AssignmentNURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Assignment

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Assignment Brief

Course: NURS 6521 – Advanced Pharmacology

Assignment Title: NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Assignment

Assignment Instructions Overview

This assignment focuses on the pharmacotherapy for cardiovascular disorders, emphasizing the critical role of advanced practice nurses in recommending and managing treatment options. It highlights the importance of understanding and considering various patient-specific factors that influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. Students are required to review relevant resources, analyze a case study, and reflect on how specific factors affect drug therapy plans.

Understanding Assignment Objectives

The primary objective of this assignment is to ensure that students can effectively recommend appropriate pharmacotherapy for cardiovascular disorders while considering individual patient factors such as genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavioral factors. Students should demonstrate their ability to assess how these factors influence pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs) and pharmacodynamics (drug effects and mechanisms of action), and make informed adjustments to optimize patient outcomes.

The Student’s Role

As an advanced practice nurse, the student’s role involves critically analyzing a patient case study to understand the impact of selected factors on drug therapy. The student must:

  • Review relevant academic and clinical resources.
  • Select and reflect on one specific factor (genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior).
  • Analyze how the chosen factor influences pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.
  • Discuss how these changes might affect the recommended drug therapy.
  • Propose improvements or alternatives to the current drug therapy plan, supported by clinical evidence.

Competencies Measured

This assignment measures several key competencies, including:

  • Clinical Assessment Skills: The ability to assess patient-specific factors and their impact on drug therapy.
  • Pharmacology Knowledge: Understanding the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and their application to cardiovascular disorders.
  • Critical Thinking: Analyzing complex clinical scenarios and making evidence-based decisions to optimize drug therapy.
  • Communication: Clearly articulating the rationale for modifying or recommending drug therapy in written form.
  • Ethical and Patient-Centered Care: Ensuring that drug therapy recommendations are safe, effective, and tailored to individual patient needs.

You Can Also Check Other Related Assessments for the NURS 6521 – Advanced Pharmacology Course:

NURS 6521 Discussion Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Asthma and Stepwise Management Assignment Presentation Example

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Diabetes and Drug Treatments Discussion Paper Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Decision Tree for Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Decision Making When Treating Psychological Disorders Discussion Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Off-Label Drug Use in Pediatrics Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Assignment Example

Introduction

Cardiovascular disorders remain a significant health challenge, especially in the aging population. Advanced practice nurses (APNs) must recommend effective and safe treatment options, considering patient-specific factors that influence pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This paper examines the impact of age on these processes and discusses potential improvements in drug therapy plans for elderly patients with cardiovascular disorders.

Influence of Age on Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Aging significantly affects pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, altering drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Age-related changes include decreased renal function, reduced hepatic blood flow, increased body fat, and decreased muscle mass and total body water, all of which impact drug efficacy and safety (Van den Anker, Reed, Allegaert & Kearns, 2018).

Absorption

In elderly patients, the absorption of drugs can be slower due to decreased gastrointestinal motility and reduced secretion of digestive enzymes (Cossart et al., 2019). These changes can impair the bioavailability of medications, requiring adjustments in drug dosing and administration schedules.

Distribution

The increase in body fat and decrease in lean body mass and total body water in elderly patients affect drug distribution. Lipophilic drugs may have an increased volume of distribution, leading to prolonged drug action, while hydrophilic drugs may have a reduced volume of distribution, resulting in higher plasma concentrations and potential toxicity (Cossart et al., 2019).

Metabolism

Aging is associated with decreased liver volume and hepatic blood flow, impairing drug metabolism. This can lead to higher plasma concentrations of drugs metabolized by the liver, increasing the risk of adverse effects (Van den Anker et al., 2018). For example, elderly patients may experience prolonged effects and toxicity from drugs like statins, which are metabolized in the liver.

Excretion

Reduced renal function in elderly patients decreases drug clearance, resulting in higher plasma drug levels and increased risk of toxicity (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2018). This is particularly concerning for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index, such as atenolol and other cardiovascular medications.

Impact on Recommended Drug Therapy

The patient is currently prescribed atenolol, doxazosin, hydralazine, sertraline, and simvastatin. Each of these drugs requires careful consideration in elderly patients due to altered pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

Atenolol

Atenolol, a beta-blocker, is used to treat hypertension but can lead to increased sensitivity and side effects in elderly patients. The increased absorption and plasma concentration of atenolol in older adults necessitate a lower dosage to prevent adverse effects like bradycardia and hypotension (Wang et al., 2019).

Doxazosin

Doxazosin, an alpha-blocker, can cause severe side effects such as dizziness and fainting due to increased sensitivity and plasma concentration in elderly patients. Co-administration with beta-blockers like atenolol can exacerbate these effects, leading to dangerously low blood pressure (Abdi & Campbell, 2018).

Sertraline

Sertraline, used for hyperlipidemia, can cause gastrointestinal complications, which are more severe in elderly patients due to decreased mucous lining and impaired drug absorption. This can lead to reduced drug efficacy and increased side effects (Chen et al., 2016).

Simvastatin

Simvastatin, a statin for high cholesterol, can impair liver function and cause muscle problems, particularly in the elderly. The increased risk of liver failure and muscle issues necessitates careful monitoring and potential dosage adjustments (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2018).

Improving the Patient’s Drug Therapy Plan

To optimize the patient’s drug therapy plan, several adjustments are recommended:

  • Discontinue Atenolol and Doxazosin: Given the risk of severe hypotension and cardiovascular complications, these drugs should be replaced with a safer alternative. Thiazide diuretics, such as hydrochlorothiazide at a low dose (12.5 mg), are recommended as a first-line treatment for hypertension in elderly patients due to their efficacy and lower risk of severe side effects (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2018).
  • Adjust Simvastatin Dosage: To reduce the risk of diabetes and other side effects, the dose of simvastatin should be lowered to 40 mg. This adjustment helps mitigate the potential adverse effects while maintaining its efficacy in managing hyperlipidemia.
  • Non-Pharmacologic Treatments: Incorporate lifestyle modifications, including regular exercise, weight control, and dietary changes (low sodium, sugar, and fat intake), to support pharmacologic treatments and reduce the need for multiple medications (AHA, 2019).

Conclusion

Age significantly influences pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, requiring careful consideration in drug therapy plans for elderly patients. By adjusting dosages, discontinuing certain medications, and incorporating non-pharmacologic treatments, advanced practice nurses can improve the safety and efficacy of cardiovascular pharmacotherapy in older adults.

References

Abdi, E., & Campbell, A. (2018). Urological symptoms and side effects of treatment. In The MASCC Textbook of Cancer Supportive Care and Survivorship (pp. 469-503). Springer, Cham.

Chen, S. T., Narvaez, T. A., Harwood, D. G., Leskin, L. P., Brommelhoff, J. A., Bussel, N., & Sultzer, D. L. (2016). Sertraline for the treatment of depression in vascular cognitive impairment. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24(3), S171-S172.

Cossart, A. R., Cottrell, W. N., Campbell, S. B., Isbel, N. M., & Staatz, C. E. (2019). Characterizing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of immunosuppressant medicines and patient outcomes in elderly renal transplant patients. Translational andrology and urology, 8(Suppl 2), S198.

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2018). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice providers. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Van den Anker, J., Reed, M. D., Allegaert, K., & Kearns, G. L. (2018). Developmental changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 58, S10-S25.

Wang, Q., Xiang, B., Chen, S., & Ji, Y. (2019). Efficacy and safety of oral atenolol for the treatment of infantile haemangioma: A systematic review. Australasian Journal of Dermatology, 60(3), 181-185.

Detailed Assessment Instructions for the NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Assignment

Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders

…heart disease remains the No. 1 killer in America; nearly half of all Americans have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoke—some of the leading risk factors for heart disease…

—Murphy et al., 2018

Despite the high mortality rates associated with cardiovascular disorders, improved treatment options do exist that can help address those risk factors that afflict the majority of the population today.

As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.

Reference: Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., & Arias, E. (2018). Mortality in the United States, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db328.htm

To Prepare

  • Review the Resources for this module and consider the impact of potential pharmacotherapeutics for cardiovascular disorders introduced in the media piece.
  • Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.
  • Select one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.
  • Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.
  • Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.
  • Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient.

By Day 7 of Week 2

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.
  • Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The College of Nursing Writing Template with Instructions provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 2 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 2 Assignment  You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer Find the document you saved as “WK2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submitbutton to complete your submission.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2

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NURS 6521 Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs AssignmentNURS 6521 Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs Assignment

NURS 6521 Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs Assignment Brief

Course: NURS 6521 – Advanced Pharmacology

Assignment Title: NURS 6521 Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs Assignment

Assignment Instructions Overview

This assignment involves a comprehensive examination of the ethical and legal implications associated with prescribing drugs. Advanced practice nurses (APNs) must evaluate various factors when prescribing medications, including the patient’s diagnosis, appropriate drug choice, dosage, administration frequency, contraindications, and potential complications. The assignment aims to ensure that APNs are well-versed in the professional, legal, and ethical standards that govern their prescriptive authority and understand how state-specific regulations might influence their prescribing practices.

Understanding Assignment Objectives

The primary objective of this assignment is to develop an in-depth understanding of the ethical and legal responsibilities of APNs when prescribing medications. Students will explore scenarios that highlight potential medication errors and analyze their implications on all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and the patient’s family. The assignment encourages students to think critically about the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, and justice, and how these ethical principles should guide their decision-making process.

The Student’s Role

As an advanced practice nurse, students are responsible for making informed and ethically sound decisions in their prescribing practices. This role involves being accountable for patient safety and well-being, maintaining professional integrity, and adhering to both legal standards and ethical guidelines. Students are expected to conduct thorough research on state-specific laws and standards related to prescribing prescription drugs and addressing medication errors. They should be prepared to communicate openly with patients and their families, especially in instances of medication errors, and implement strategies to prevent such errors from recurring.

Competencies Measured

This assignment measures several key competencies essential for advanced practice nursing, including:

  • Ethical Decision-Making: The ability to apply ethical principles to real-world scenarios and make decisions that prioritize patient safety and autonomy.
  • Legal Knowledge: Understanding the legal requirements and regulations related to prescribing medications in different states, and how to comply with these laws.
  • Clinical Judgment: Assessing patient-specific factors that might influence drug efficacy and safety, and making appropriate clinical decisions based on this assessment.
  • Communication Skills: Effectively communicating with patients, families, and other healthcare professionals, particularly regarding the disclosure of medication errors.
  • Risk Management: Implementing strategies to minimize the risk of medication errors and ensuring a culture of safety within the healthcare setting.

You Can Also Check Other Related Assessments for the NURS 6521 – Advanced Pharmacology Course:

NURS 6521 Discussion Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Asthma and Stepwise Management Assignment Presentation Example

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Diabetes and Drug Treatments Discussion Paper Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Decision Tree for Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Decision Making When Treating Psychological Disorders Discussion Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Off-Label Drug Use in Pediatrics Assignment Example

NURS 6521 Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs Assignment Example

Introduction

Advanced practice nurses (APNs) with prescriptive authority bear the significant responsibility of ensuring patient safety and adherence to legal and ethical standards. The process of prescribing drugs involves considering the patient’s diagnosis, the appropriate medication, dosage, administration frequency, contraindications, and potential complications. Furthermore, state regulations and ethical principles guide APNs in their practice. This paper examines the ethical and legal implications of a medication error scenario, explores strategies for addressing disclosure and nondisclosure, and outlines approaches to minimize such errors.

Ethical and Legal Implications: Scenario Analysis

A common scenario involves an APN who mistakenly prescribes an incorrect dosage of a medication to a patient, leading to adverse effects. This situation impacts multiple stakeholders. The prescriber may face malpractice claims and licensure consequences. Ethically, the prescriber is obligated to rectify the error and prevent further harm. The pharmacist is responsible for verifying prescriptions and may share liability if the error is not caught. The patient suffers direct health impacts, while the family deals with emotional and financial burdens. Ethically, they deserve transparency and honesty about the error. The healthcare institution may face reputational damage and financial liabilities. There is also an ethical obligation to support a culture of safety and accountability.

Each state has specific regulations governing the practice of APNs. For instance, in California, APNs must adhere to the guidelines set by the California Board of Registered Nursing, which includes mandatory reporting of medication errors and following specific protocols for prescribing and documentation (California Board of Registered Nursing, 2021). Failure to comply can result in disciplinary action and legal consequences.

Strategies for Disclosure and Nondisclosure

Disclosing medication errors to the patient and their family is ethically imperative. It aligns with the principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence, ensuring that patients are fully informed about their treatment and any associated risks. Employing a compassionate and supportive approach when communicating errors helps maintain trust and facilitates a constructive dialogue about corrective measures.

Nondisclosure can lead to legal repercussions, including malpractice lawsuits and loss of licensure. It also undermines patient trust and violates ethical principles. From an ethical standpoint, nondisclosure conflicts with the principles of autonomy and justice, depriving patients of their right to make informed decisions about their care.

Strategies for Ethical and Legal Decision-Making

Implementing Ethical Guidelines

  • Adherence to Ethical Principles: APNs should follow ethical guidelines such as the American Nurses Association’s Code of Ethics, which emphasizes patient safety, honesty, and accountability (American Nurses Association, 2015).
  • Ongoing Education: Regular training on ethical decision-making and legal requirements can help APNs stay informed and prepared to handle complex situations.

Minimizing Medication Errors

  • Use of Technology: Implementing electronic health records (EHRs) and computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems can reduce the risk of errors by providing accurate, up-to-date patient information and alerting prescribers to potential issues.
  • Collaborative Practice: Encouraging a team-based approach where APNs work closely with pharmacists, physicians, and other healthcare professionals can enhance the verification process and catch errors before they reach the patient.

Conclusion

APNs must navigate the complex landscape of legal and ethical considerations when prescribing drugs. Understanding state regulations, adhering to ethical principles, and employing strategies to minimize errors and ensure transparency enables APNs to uphold their professional responsibilities and protect patient safety. Regular education and the use of technology are crucial in fostering a safe and effective healthcare environment.

References

American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Publishing.

California Board of Registered Nursing. (2021). Laws and Regulations. Retrieved from California BRN.

Niemann, D., Bertsche, A., Meyrath, D., Koepf, E. D., Traiser, C., Seebald, K., & Bertsche, T. (2015). A prospective three-step intervention study to prevent medication errors in drug handling in pediatric care. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24(1-2), 101-114.

Detailed Assessment Instructions for the NURS 6521 Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs Assignment

Assignment: Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs

What type of drug should you prescribe based on your patient’s diagnosis? How much of the drug should the patient receive? How often should the drug be administered? When should the drug not be prescribed? Are there individual patient factors that could create complications when taking the drug? Should you be prescribing drugs to this patient? How might different state regulations affect the prescribing of this drug to this patient?

These are some of the questions you might consider when selecting a treatment plan for a patient.

As an advanced practice nurse prescribing drugs, you are held accountable for people’s lives every day. Patients and their families will often place trust in you because of your position. With this trust comes power and responsibility, as well as an ethical and legal obligation to “do no harm.” It is important that you are aware of current professional, legal, and ethical standards for advanced practice nurses with prescriptive authority. Additionally, it is important to ensure that the treatment plans and administration/prescribing of drugs is in accordance with the regulations of the state in which you practice. Understanding how these regulations may affect the prescribing of certain drugs in different states may have a significant impact on your patient’s treatment plan. In this Assignment, you explore ethical and legal implications of scenarios and consider how to appropriately respond.

To Prepare

Review the Resources for this module and consider the legal and ethical implications of prescribing prescription drugs, disclosure, and nondisclosure.

  • Review the scenario assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.
  • Search specific laws and standards for prescribing prescription drugs and for addressing medication errors for your state or region, and reflect on these as you review the scenario assigned by your Instructor.
  • Consider the ethical and legal implications of the scenario for all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and patient’s family.
  • Think about two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your ethically and legally responsible decision-making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose any medication errors.

By Day 7 of Week 1

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Explain the ethical and legal implications of the scenario you selected on all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and patient’s family.
  • Describe strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario you selected. Be sure to reference laws specific to your state.
  • Explain two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your decision making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose your error. Be sure to justify your explanation.
  • Explain the process of writing prescriptions, including strategies to minimize medication errors.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The College of Nursing Writing Template with Instructions provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 1 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 1 Assignment  You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer Find the document you saved as “WK1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submitbutton to complete your submission.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 1

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NURS 6521 – Advanced Pharmacology Course Guide, Assignments & Examples

NURS 6521 - Advanced Pharmacology Course Guide, Assignments & ExamplesNURS 6521 – Advanced Pharmacology Course Guide, Assignments & Examples* (5 credits)

NURS 6521 – Advanced Pharmacology Course Description

A solid foundation in the concepts and principles of drug therapy across the lifespan is essential to the work of advanced practice nurses. This course applies the advanced principles of pharmacology, including pharmacogenomics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics, by analysis of common drug classes prescribed by advanced practice nurses across the life span. Factors influencing successful therapy, such as effectiveness, safety, acceptability, cost, genetic/environmental influences, complementary regimens, and patient behaviors are considered. Through this course, students prepare to examine complex decisions in the management and treatment of selected acute and chronic diseases across the life span through pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic agents. Advanced practice nursing students will have a more in-depth understanding of drug legislation and regulation for prescribing drugs.

Course Learning Outcomes

By the conclusion of this course, you should be able to:

  • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes
  • Analyze pharmacotherapeutic treatments for body system disorders and the effects they have on patient outcomes
  • Analyze factors that impact patient drug therapy plans
  • Evaluate the impact of drug therapy on patient health outcomes
  • Apply decision-making strategies for the appropriate use of drugs based on classifications, indications, patient factors, and pathophysiology NURS 6521: Advanced Pharmacology Syllabus
  • Evaluate ethical and legal implications of prescribing drugs

SON Alignment of Learner Outcomes

Click on the following link to access the SON Alignment of Learner Outcomes:

Document: NURS 6521 SON Alignment of Learning Outcomes (PDF)

Course Materials

Please visit the University bookstore via your Walden student portal to ensure you are obtaining the correct version of any course texts and/or materials noted in the following section. When you receive your materials, make sure that all required items are included.

Course Text

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2018). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice providers. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Note: If the print edition of these books are referenced here, electronic versions also may be available and may be acceptable for use in this course. If an electronic version is listed, no print version is available. NURS 6521: Advanced Pharmacology Syllabus.

Other readings (journal articles, websites, book excerpts, etc.) are assigned throughout the course and may be found within each Module.

Course Readings List

The Course Readings List contains all of the required Walden Library resources for this course. Please click on the following link to access the list:

Course Readings List

Media

Assigned course media elements may be found in one or more modules of the course and are available via a streaming media player or a hyperlink to the individual item.

Dedicated Support for Course Media

You may use the following e-mail address and toll-free number for any questions or concerns you have about media in the course.

E-mail: mediasupport@waldenu.edu

Phone: 1-877-238-2963

Primary and Secondary Sources

Review the following information prior to selecting resources for assignments.

Primary: A primary source is an original document that is the first account of what happened. A research report is primary, and you can tell because it includes materials and methods demonstrating how the research was done. Some creative work is also primary, such as poetry, novels, and interviews of people who experienced something firsthand. In nursing, which is an evidence-based discipline, we strive to use primary research that is published in scholarly, peer-reviewed journals. NURS 6521: Advanced Pharmacology Syllabus

Scholarly, peer-reviewed journal: Scholarly journals publish papers by professional authors and experts in the field using a peer-review process to review the work and assure quality before publishing. The focus of a scholarly journal is to provide accurate information for scholars and other researchers. The focus is on content rather than advertising, a direct contrast to popular media. Scholarly journals publish both primary and secondary papers, the former usually noted as original research and the latter as reviews and commentaries. Letters to the editor may also be published but should be recognized as opinion pieces.

Note: When selecting articles for course assignments, you are advised (unless you are referencing seminal information) to focus on work published within the past five years.

Secondary: A secondary source is one step removed from the original source. This work interprets and often compiles other work, and it includes review articles, textbooks, fact sheets, and commentaries about a topic. It also includes news reports of original research. Secondary work is more prone to error and bias than primary work because it is being filtered through an additional person or persons. Review papers can be useful to glean information about a topic and to find other sources from the reference list, but it is the original, primary research that should be relied on most heavily in demonstrating scholarship, depth, and validation of factual information.

Course Assignments

    1. Participation in weekly Discussions: The exchange of ideas among colleagues engaged in scholarly inquiry is a key aspect of learning and is a requisite activity in this course. You are expected to participate each week by posting a response to a prompt or question in the weekly Discussion area. In addition, you are expected to respond to your fellow students’ postings. To count as participation, responses need to be thoughtful; that is, they must refer to the week’s readings, relevant issues in the news, information obtained from other sources, and/or ideas expressed in the postings of other class members. You may ask questions or offer further information or links about the subject. Please pay attention to grammar and spelling, as consistently poorly written posts will receive grade penalties. In grading the required Discussion postings, your Instructor will be using the Discussion Posting and Response Rubric, located in the Course Information area. NURS 6521: Advanced Pharmacology Syllabus Note: Unless otherwise noted, initial postings to Discussions are due on or before Day 3, and response postings are due on or before Day 6. You are required to participate in the Discussion on at least three different days (a different day for main post and each response). It is important to adhere to the weekly time frame to allow others ample time to respond to your posting. In addition, you are expected to respond to questions directed toward your own initial posting in a timely manner.
    1. Assignments: The Assignments provide you with the opportunity to apply the skills and knowledge gained through the Learning Resources and the practicum experience. See the Assignment area of specific weeks for detailed descriptions of the assignments. In grading the required Assignments, your Instructor will be using rubrics located in the Course Information area. Note: The course Assignments will require that you completely and accurately demonstrate critical thinking via assimilation and synthesis of ideas when using credible, outside and course specific resources (i.e. video, required readings, textbook), when comparing different points of view, highlighting similarities, differences, and connections, and/or when lending support to your Assignment responses.
  1. Portfolio Assignment: Each course in the Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) program for the following specializations includes a Portfolio Assignment: Nursing Education, Nurse Executive, Nursing Informatics, and Public Health Nursing. The Portfolio Assignment is designed to measure specific professional knowledge and skills as outlined in the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) Master’s Essentials. Students submit the Portfolio Assignment in the online classroom and a criterion-based scoring rubric is used to grade the assignment. The rubric is aligned with American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) Master’s Essentials and provides specific and informative feedback on your performance. The Portfolio Assignment is evaluated by the course Instructor.

Grading Criteria and Total Components of a Grade

Course grades will be based on participation (postings) and completion of assignments listed below.

Note: All assignments must be completed to pass the course.

Letter grades will be assigned as follows:

90%–100% = A
80%–89% = B
70%–79% = C
< 70% = F

Please see below for the policy on Incomplete (I) grades.

Assignment Total Points Percentage
(Weighted)
Discussions

Participation in Discussions*
(4 @ 100 pts. each)

400 25%
Assignments

  • Week 1 Assignment (100 pts.)
  • Week 2 Assignment (100 pts.)
  • Week 3 Assignment (100 pts.)
  • Week 5 Assignment (100 pts.)
  • Week 8 Assignment (100 pts.)
  • Week 9 Assignment (100 pts.)
  • NURS 6521: Advanced Pharmacology Syllabus
600 25%
Exams

  • Midterm Exam (100 pts.)
  • Final Exam (100 pts.)
200 50%
Total 1,200 100%

* Each Discussion requires that you make one initial posting and at least two response postings to colleagues. See the Discussion Posting and Response Rubric for posting details.

Incomplete Grade Policy

Per University policy, Incomplete grades can be granted only to students who have already met the minimum criteria for active weekly participation in a course (including weekly postings in online courses) and have completed at least 80% of other coursework. Incompletes can be awarded when, because of extenuating circumstances, a student has not met additional course requirements, including but not limited to written assignments, group projects, and research papers, as applicable. All Incomplete grades are awarded at the discretion of the course faculty. (Reproduced from Student Catalog)

Students who are eligible for an Incomplete must contact the Course Faculty to request the grade as soon as possible. Students who do not meet the criteria listed above will not be allowed to earn an Incomplete. If the Incomplete is approved, the Faculty Member will work with the student to outline the due date(s) for remaining work. Under no circumstances will the new due dates extend beyond 50 days from the last day of the term. Faculty will then have 10 days to assess the work and post the permanent grade before the University-allotted Incomplete time limit of 60 days expires. All Incomplete grades not resolved within the time allotted will convert to permanent grades of F.

Instructor Feedback Schedule

The Instructor will log in to the course during the week to monitor the weekly Discussion area. Feedback will be provided via the My Grades area, the Discussion area, and/or the Announcements page.

You can expect your weekly assignment grades to be posted within 10 calendar days of a due date. Instructor feedback and explanation is provided whenever full credit is not achieved. Depending on the nature of the feedback, Instructor responses may be posted to the Discussion area or included in the My Grades area. The goal of your Instructor is to act as a discussion and learning facilitator rather than a lecturer. The Instructor will not respond to every posting by every individual, so please feel free to ask your Instructor if you would like some personal feedback on a particular assignment posting or any time you have any questions regarding your assignments or your grade.

Course Procedures

  • All class Discussions take place in the weekly Discussion areas.
  • You are encouraged to post course-related questions to the Contact the Instructor area as they may be of interest to all; however, if your question is urgent, it is often best to e-mail the Instructor. If your e-mailed question is thought to be of benefit to all, it may be responded to by the Instructor via e-mail to all or posted as an announcement.
  • Instructor feedback on content and writing issues that is thought to be of benefit to the entire class may be posted to the Contact the Instructor area; however, most personal critique will be done privately in the Grade Center. Be sure to check the Grade Center for comments every week even if you received full credit.
  • Please feel free to use the Class Café to initiate and participate in conversations not directly related to the course. This is an excellent opportunity to get to know other students better. The Instructor will browse the Class Café occasionally but generally will not respond to conversations posted there unless students have specific questions for him or her.
  • Check the e-mail account you use for official Walden University business on a regular basis. The expectation is that you are checking this e-mail account daily during the week. If you experience difficulty sending or receiving Walden e-mail, please contact the Customer Care Team right away. Contact information for the Customer Care Team is located in the Student Support area.
  • Review all materials in the Course Information area, as well as the materials contained under each of the weekly buttons.

Note: There are Optional Readings located within the Learning Resources section of each week in the course. You are encouraged to explore these readings, as needed, in order to enhance your understanding of the course content.

Preferred Methods for Delivering Assignments

  1. Be sure that you post to the correct Discussion area each week. Do not e-mail postings to the Instructor. For all initial Discussion postings, make sure that the first sentence of your posting reads Main Question Post. For your responses to others’ response postings, make sure that the first sentence of your response reads Response. These actions will ensure easily identifiable subject lines for your postings and responses.
  2. Application Assignments are submitted to the SafeAssign link and named according to the week in which the Assignment is submitted. Directions for naming each Application Assignment are included in each week’s Assignment area. Please be sure that all written Application Assignments are saved and submitted as a “.doc” file.
  3. All e-mail correspondence must contain in the subject line “ABCD 1234-XX-NAME” (ABCD = course prefix, 1234 = course number, XX = section number) followed by a brief description of the subject. This subject line convention ensures that your e-mail will be easily identified and responded to in a timely manner. It is required that the e-mail contain a signature that matches the official name used in the course. NURS 6521: Advanced Pharmacology Syllabus

Late Assignment Policy

Students are expected to submit assignments by the due dates noted in the course. In extenuating circumstances, such as illness, the student must contact the Instructor as soon as possible to discuss the situation. In those circumstances, faculty will determine the appropriate course of action for the student. NURS 6521: Advanced Pharmacology Syllabus. Depending on the situation, these actions may include recommendations to drop the course (if within the University drop/withdrawal period), acceptance of some or all of the overdue assignments with or without penalties, or failure to accept assignments.

Assignments submitted late without prior agreement of the Instructor, outside of an emergency absence, or in violation of agreements for late submission, will receive a grade reduction for the assignment amounting up to 20%. After 5 days, the assignment will not be graded. Students should be aware that late assignments may not receive the same level of written feedback as do assignments submitted on time.

Keeping Your Coursework

You will have access to the course and your coursework from the course start date until 60 days after the course ends. After this time, you will no longer be able to access the course or related materials. For this reason, we strongly recommend that you retain copies of your completed assignments and any documents you wish to keep. The University is not responsible for lost or missing coursework.

Course Evaluation

At or near the end of the course, you will receive an e-mail inviting you to submit an online evaluation of the course and instruction. All submitted course evaluations are confidential, and only aggregate data and comments will be shared with the Instructor and Program Director. Your feedback is vitally important to Walden University in its efforts to continuously improve programs.

Students With Disabilities

Students in this course who have a disability that might prevent them from fully demonstrating their abilities should contact the director of Disability Services at disability@mail.waldenu.edu or at 1-800-925-3368, ext. 312-1205 and +1-612-925-3368 or https://www.waldenu.edu/contact for international toll-free numbers as soon as possible to initiate disability verification and discuss accommodations that may be necessary to ensure full participation in the successful completion of course requirements.

Classroom Participation

In accordance with U.S. Department of Education guidance regarding class participation, Walden University requires that all students submit at least one of their required Week 1 assignments (which includes posting to the Discussion Board) within each course(s) during the first 7 calendar days of class NURS 6521: Advanced Pharmacology Syllabus. For courses with two-week units, posting to the Discussion Board by Day 7 meets this requirement. The first calendar day of class is the official start date of the course as posted on your myWalden academic page.

Assignments submitted prior to the official start date will not count toward your participation. 

Financial Aid cannot be released without class participation as defined above. 

Students who are taking their first class with Walden and do not submit at least one of their required Week 1 assignments (or at least one Discussion post) by the end of the 7th day will be administratively withdrawn from the university.

Students who have already taken and successfully completed at least one or more class(es) with Walden, and who do not participate within the first 7 days, will be dropped from that class.

If you have any questions about your assignments, or you are unable to complete your assignments, please contact your Faculty Member.

Checklist

The module course checklist below outlines the assignments due for the course.

For full assignment details and directions, refer to each module of the course. All assignments are due by 11:59 p.m. Mountain Time (MT) on the day assigned (which is 1:59 a.m. Eastern Time (ET) the next day). The time stamp in the classroom will reflect Eastern Time (ET), regardless of your time zone. As long as your submission time stamp is no later than 1:59 a.m. Eastern Time (ET), you have submitted on time.

To View the Calendar

To view the Course Calendar:

Course Calendar

To View a Printable Course Schedule

For full assignment details and directions, refer to each Module of the course.

Click on the NURS 6521 Course Schedule (PDF) link to access the Course Schedule.

Document: NURS 6521 Course Schedule (PDF)

Checklist

Week Assignment Title
Module 1: Foundational Concepts of Advanced Pharmacology
Week 1 Basic Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts/Ethical and Legal Aspects of Prescribing
Learning Resources Required Readings
Required Media
Discussion Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Assignment Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs
Module 2: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems
Week 2 Cardiovascular System
Learning Resources Required Readings
Required Media
Assignment Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders
Week 3 Respiratory System NURS 6521: Advanced Pharmacology Syllabus
Learning Resources Required Readings
Required Media
Assignment Asthma and Stepwise Management
Module 3: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Systems
Week 4 Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders
Learning Resources Required Readings
Required Media
Assignment Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders
Module 4: Endocrine System
Week 5 Endocrine System Disorders and the Treatment of Diabetes
Learning Resources Required Readings
Required Media
Discussion Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Module 5: Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Systems
Week 6 Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Disorders
Learning Resources Required Readings
Required Media
Assignment Decision Tree for Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Disorders (start)
Week 7 Midterm Exam
Midterm Exam
Module 6: Psychological Disorders 
Week 8 Pharmacology for Psychological Disorders
  Learning Resources Required Readings
Required Media
  Discussion Decision Making When Treating Psychological Disorders
  Assignment Decision Tree for Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Disorders (submit)
Module 7: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Systems
Week 9 Women’s and Men’s Health
Learning Resources Required Readings
Required Media
Discussion Women’s and Men’s Health, Infectious Disease, and Hematologic Disorders
Week 10 Infections and Hematologic Systems  
  Learning Resources Required Readings
Required Media
  Discussion Women’s and Men’s Health, Infectious Disease, and Hematologic Disorders
Module 8: Pediatrics NURS 6521: Advanced Pharmacology Syllabus
Week 11 Pediatrics
Learning Resources Required Readings
Required Media
Assignment Off-Label Drug Use in Pediatrics
Final Exam

Bibliography

The bibliography contains the references for all learning materials in the course. For your convenience, a link has been provided to download and save the bibliography. NURS 6521: Advanced Pharmacology Syllabus

Module 1: Foundational Concepts of Advanced Pharmacology

What’s Happening In This Module?

This course is composed of eight (8) separate modules. Each module consists of an overarching topic in which each week within the module includes specific subtopics for learning. As you work through each module, you will have an opportunity to draw upon the knowledge you gain in various discussion and assignment components which will be due throughout each of the modules.

Module 1: Basic Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts/Ethical and Legal Aspects of Prescribing is a one-week module. In Week 1 of the course, you will examine how patient factors may influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of pharmacotherapeutics. You will also examine the ethical and legal implications of prescribing drugs, as well as advanced practice nurse strategies in guiding prescription drug decision-making.

What do I have to do?     When do I have to do it?    
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7 Week 1
Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Post by Day 3 of Week 1, and respond to your colleagues by Day 6 of Week 1.
Assignment: Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 1.

 

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 1: Basic Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts/Ethical and Legal Aspects of Prescribing

How do beta-blockers work? What exactly do antibiotics do to the bacteria they target? What effects does an anti-depressant have on blood flow?

Questions like these are related to the underlying pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of pharmacotherapeutics. As an advanced practice nurse, understanding these fundamental pharmacotherapeutic concepts is important to ensure that the prescription drugs you recommend for your patients will be safe and effective to treat and/or manage their symptoms. Additionally, as the advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to ensure that when prescribing prescription drugs, you adhere to the ethical and legal principles set forth for prescribing drugs as an added layer of protection and safety for the patients you will treat.

This week, you will analyze factors that may influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics processes of a patient and assess the details of a personalized plan of care that you develop based on influencing factors and patient history. You will also evaluate and analyze ethical and legal implications and practices related to prescribing drugs, including disclosure and nondisclosure, and analyze the process of writing prescriptions to avoid medication errors.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze factors that influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in patients
  • Assess patient factors and history to develop personalized plans of care
  • Evaluate ethical and legal implications related to prescribing drugs
  • Analyze ethical and legal practices of prescribing drugs
  • Analyze strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure
  • Justify advanced practice nurse strategies to guide prescription drug decision-making
  • Analyze the process of writing prescriptions to avoid medication errors

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 1, “Prescriptive Authority” (pp. 1–3)
  • Chapter 2, “Rational Drug Selection and Prescription Writing” (pp. 4–7)
  • Chapter 3, “Promoting Positive Outcomes of Drug Therapy” (pp. 8–12)
  • Chapter 4, “Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Drug Interactions” (pp. 13–33)
  • Chapter 5, “Adverse Drug Reactions and Medication Errors” (pp. 34–42)
  • Chapter 6, “Individual Variation in Drug Response” (pp. 43–45)

 American Geriatrics Society 2019 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. (2019). American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(4), 674–694. doi:10.1111/jgs.15767

American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults by American Geriatrics Society, in Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 67/Issue 4. Copyright 2019 by Blackwell Publishing. Reprinted by permission of Blackwell Publishing via the Copyright Clearance Center.

This article is an update to the Beers Criteria, which includes lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults as well as newly added criteria that lists select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual’s kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-a). Code of federal regulations. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/21cfr/cfr/1300/1300_01.htm

This website outlines the code of federal regulations for prescription drugs.

 Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-b). Mid-level practitioners authorization by state. Retrieved May 13, 2019 from http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/practioners/index.html

 This website outlines the schedules for controlled substances, including prescriptive authority for each schedule.

 Drug Enforcement Administration. (2006). Practitioner’s manual. Retrieved from http://www.legalsideofpain.com/uploads/pract_manual090506.pdf
This manual is a resource for practitioners who prescribe, dispense, and administer controlled substances. It provides information on general requirements, security issues, recordkeeping, prescription requirements, and addiction treatment programs.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-c). Registration. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/index.html

This website details key aspects of drug registration.

Fowler, M. D. M., & American Nurses Association. (2015). Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements: Development, Interpretation, and Application (2nd ed.). Silver Spring, Maryland: American Nurses Association.

This resource introduces the code of ethics for nurses and highlights critical aspects for ethical guideline development, interpretation, and application in practice.

Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2017). List of error-prone abbreviations, symbols, and dose designations. Retrieved from https://www.ismp.org/recommendations/error-prone-abbreviations-list

This website provides a list of prescription-writing abbreviations that might lead to misinterpretation, as well as suggestions for preventing resulting errors.

Ladd,E., & Hoyt, A. (2016). Shedding light on nurse practitioner prescribing. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 12(3), 166–173. doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2015.09.17

This article provides NPs with information regarding state-based laws for NP prescribing.

Sabatino, J. A., Pruchnicki, M. C., Sevin, A. M., Barker, E., Green, C. G., & Porter, K. (2017). Improving prescribing practices: A pharmacist‐led educational intervention for nurse practitioner students. Journal of the American Association ofNursePractitioners, 29(5), 248–254. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12446

The authors of this article assess the impact of a pharmacist‐led educational intervention on family nurse practitioner (FNP) students’ prescribing skills, perception of preparedness to prescribe, and perception of pharmacist as collaborator.

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

Introduction to Advanced Pharmacology

Meet Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons College of Nursing and Health Sciences as she discusses the importance of pharmacology for the advanced practice nurse. (8m)

Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

As an advanced practice nurse assisting physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders, it is important to not only understand the impact of disorders on the body, but also the impact of drug treatments on the body. The relationships between drugs and the body can be described by pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, whereas pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the body.

When selecting drugs and determining dosages for patients, it is essential to consider individual patient factors that might impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. These patient factors include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior (i.e., diet, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, illicit drug abuse), and/or pathophysiological changes due to disease.

For this Discussion, you reflect on a case from your past clinical experiences and consider how a patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes may alter his or her response to a drug.

To Prepare

  • Review the Resources for this module and consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
  • Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last 5 years and think about how pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug.
  • Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease.
  • Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history in your case study.

By Day 3 of Week 1

Post a description of the patient case from your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practice from the last 5 years. Then, describe factors that might have influenced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patient you identified. Finally, explain details of the personalized plan of care that you would develop based on influencing factors and patient history in your case. Be specific and provide examples.

By Day 6 of Week 1

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days by suggesting additional patient factors that might have interfered with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patients they described. In addition, suggest how the personalized plan of care might change if the age of the patient were different and/or if the patient had a comorbid condition, such as renal failure, heart failure, or liver failure.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

 Assignment: Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs

What type of drug should you prescribe based on your patient’s diagnosis? How much of the drug should the patient receive? How often should the drug be administered? When should the drug not be prescribed? Are there individual patient factors that could create complications when taking the drug? Should you be prescribing drugs to this patient? How might different state regulations affect the prescribing of this drug to this patient?

These are some of the questions you might consider when selecting a treatment plan for a patient.

As an advanced practice nurse prescribing drugs, you are held accountable for people’s lives every day. Patients and their families will often place trust in you because of your position. With this trust comes power and responsibility, as well as an ethical and legal obligation to “do no harm.” It is important that you are aware of current professional, legal, and ethical standards for advanced practice nurses with prescriptive authority. Additionally, it is important to ensure that the treatment plans and administration/prescribing of drugs is in accordance with the regulations of the state in which you practice. Understanding how these regulations may affect the prescribing of certain drugs in different states may have a significant impact on your patient’s treatment plan. In this Assignment, you explore ethical and legal implications of scenarios and consider how to appropriately respond.

To Prepare

Review the Resources for this module and consider the legal and ethical implications of prescribing prescription drugs, disclosure, and nondisclosure.

  • Review the scenario assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.
  • Search specific laws and standards for prescribing prescription drugs and for addressing medication errors for your state or region, and reflect on these as you review the scenario assigned by your Instructor.
  • Consider the ethical and legal implications of the scenario for all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and patient’s family.
  • Think about two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your ethically and legally responsible decision-making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose any medication errors.

By Day 7 of Week 1

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Explain the ethical and legal implications of the scenario you selected on all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and patient’s family.
  • Describe strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario you selected. Be sure to reference laws specific to your state.
  • Explain two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your decision making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose your error. Be sure to justify your explanation.
  • Explain the process of writing prescriptions, including strategies to minimize medication errors.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The College of Nursing Writing Template with Instructions provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 1 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 1 Assignment  You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer Find the document you saved as “WK1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submitbutton to complete your submission.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 1

 What’s Coming Up in Module 2?

In the next module, you will examine the impact of changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes on patient drug therapy for cardiovascular disorders and the types of drugs prescribed to patients with respiratory disorders.

Looking Ahead: Week 2 Assignment

In Week 2, your Instructor will assign you a case study related to Assignment 1 by Day 1 of the week. Please make sure to review the “Course Announcements” area of the course to verify your assigned case study. Please plan ahead to ensure you have time to review your case study and Learning Resources in order to complete your Assignment on time.

Module 2: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 2: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems is a 2-week module, Weeks 2 and 3 of the course. In this module, you will examine how patient factors may influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of pharmacotherapeutics used in the treatment of cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. You will also explore and suggest drug therapy plans for asthma and analyze the stepwise approach for asthma treatment and management.

What do I have to do?     When do I have to do it?    
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7, Weeks 2 and 3
Assignment 1: Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2.
Assignment 2: Asthma and Stepwise Management Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 3.

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 2: Cardiovascular System

Alterations of the cardiovascular system can cause serious adverse events and may lead to death when not treated in a timely and safe manner. Unfortunately, many patients with cardiovascular disorders are unaware until complications appear. In clinical settings, patients often present with symptoms of several cardiovascular disorders, making it essential for you, as the advanced practice nurse, to be able to recognize these symptoms and recommend appropriate drug treatment options.

This week, you examine the impact of patient factors that may lead to changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes on patient drug therapy for cardiovascular disorders. You also explore ways to improve drug therapy plans for cardiovascular disorders based on patient factors and overall health needs.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Analyze the influence of patient factors on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes

Analyze the impact of changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes on patient drug therapies

Evaluate drug therapy plans for cardiovascular disorders

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

  • Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
  • Chapter 33, “Review of Hemodynamics” (pp. 285–289)
  • Chapter 37, “Diuretics” (pp. 290–296)
  • Chapter 38, “Drugs Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System” (pp. 297–307)
  • Chapter 39, “Calcium Channel Blockers” (pp. 308–312)
  • Chapter 40, “Vasodilators” (pp. 313–317)
  • Chapter 41, “Drugs for Hypertension” (pp. 316–324)
  • Chapter 42, “Drugs for Heart Failure” (pp. 325–336)
  • Chapter 43, “Antidysrhythmic Drugs” (pp. 337–348)
  • Chapter 44, “Prophylaxis of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Drugs That Help Normalize Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels” (pp. 349–363)
  • Chapter 45, “Drugs for Angina Pectoris” (pp. 364–371)
  • Chapter 46, “Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Drugs” (pp. 372–388)

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

Cardiovascular Disorders

Meet Dr. Norbert Myslinski as he discusses ACE inhibitors, angiotensin inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics as different categories of hypertension drugs. What potential drugs might be best recommended for patients suffering from hypertension? (8m)

Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders

…heart disease remains the No. 1 killer in America; nearly half of all Americans have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoke—some of the leading risk factors for heart disease…

—Murphy et al., 2018

Despite the high mortality rates associated with cardiovascular disorders, improved treatment options do exist that can help address those risk factors that afflict the majority of the population today.

As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.

Reference: Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., & Arias, E. (2018). Mortality in the United States, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db328.htm

To Prepare

  • Review the Resources for this module and consider the impact of potential pharmacotherapeutics for cardiovascular disorders introduced in the media piece.
  • Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.
  • Select one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.
  • Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.
  • Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.
  • Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient.

By Day 7 of Week 2

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.
  • Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The College of Nursing Writing Template with Instructions provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 2 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 2 Assignment  You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer Find the document you saved as “WK2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submitbutton to complete your submission.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2

What’s Coming Up in Week 3?

Next week, you will examine strategies for the treatment and management of respiratory disorders, including asthma. You will analyze asthma and stepwise management and consider the impact of this approach for patient health.

Week 3: Respiratory System

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are significant public health burdens. Currently, more than 25 million people in the United States have asthma (HealthyPeople.gov, 2019). As an advanced practice nurse, you will likely encounter patients who will present with respiratory disorders, including asthma or COPD. Understanding specific treatment protocols as well as the types of pharmacotherapeutics used to treat respiratory disorders is important to ensure the effective and safe delivery of advanced nursing practice.

This week, you will evaluate drug therapy plans for patients who present with asthma and analyze the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management from a patient in your professional practice.

Reference: HealthyPeople.gov. (2019). Respiratory diseases. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/respiratory-diseases

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate drug therapy plans for asthma
  • Assess the impact of asthma treatments on patients
  • Analyze the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Chapter 62, “Drugs for Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease” (pp. 557–579)

Chapter 63, “Drugs for Allergic Rhinitis, Cough, and Colds” (pp. 580–588)

Document: APA Presentation Template

Optional Resources (click to expand/reduce)

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. (2007). Expert panel report 3 (EPR3): Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/asthma/asthgdln.htm

 This web resource presents guidelines for diagnosing and managing asthma and outlines treatment recommendations for specific age groups.

Assignment: Asthma and Stepwise Management

Asthma is a respiratory disorder that affects children and adults. Advanced practice nurses often provide treatment to patients with these disorders. Sometimes patients require immediate treatment, making it essential that you recognize and distinguish minor asthma symptoms from serious, life-threatening ones. Since symptoms and attacks are often induced by a trigger, advanced practice nurses must also help patients identify their triggers and recommend appropriate management options. Like many other disorders, there are various approaches to treating and managing care for asthmatic patients depending on individual patient factors.

One method that supports the clinical decision making of drug therapy plans for asthmatic patients is the stepwise approach, which you explore in this Assignment.

To Prepare

  • Reflect on drugs used to treat asthmatic patients, including long-term control and quick relief treatment options for patients. Think about the impact these drugs might have on patients, including adults and children.
  • Consider how you might apply the stepwise approach to address the health needs of a patient in your practice.
  • Reflect on how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease.

By Day 7 of Week 3

Create a 5- to 6-slide PowerPoint presentation that can be used in a staff development meeting on presenting different approaches for implementing the stepwise approach for asthma treatment. Be sure to address the following:

  • Describe long-term control and quick relief treatment options for the asthma patient from your practice as well as the impact these drugs might have on your patient.
  • Explain the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management for your patient.
  • Explain how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease. Be specific.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK3Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment  You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer Find the document you saved as “WK3Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submitbutton to complete your submission.
  • NOTE: SafeAssign does not accept files over 10MB in size. Please attempt to keep your files under 10MB.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 3

What’s Coming Up in Module 3?

In the next module, you will examine diagnoses for patients with potential GI and hepatobiliary disorders. You will also develop a drug therapy plan based on patient history and diagnosis.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Module 3

Module 3: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Systems

Symptoms of various gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders often overlap, making diagnosis and treatment challenging. For example, symptoms such as vomiting, constipation, and bloating are non-specific and could also be the result of underlying medical history or current prescription drug use. As an advanced practice nurse, you could be potentially responsible for providing care to a patient who may present with non-specific symptoms related to the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary systems.

How would you proceed to care for this patient? What type of drug therapy might you recommend, not knowing current medical history or prescription drug use? Are there certain drugs you should avoid in ensuring a drug-drug interaction does not occur? These are the types of questions that may guide you in your role as an advanced practice nurse.

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 3: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Systems is a 1-week module, Week 4 of the course. In this module, you will examine diagnoses for patients with potential GI and hepatobiliary disorders. You also develop a drug therapy plan based on patient history and diagnosis.

What do I have to do?     When do I have to do it?    
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7, Week 4
Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4.

Week 4: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

As an advanced practice nurse, you will likely encounter patients who will present with symptoms affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Of special note, is the consideration that most symptoms concerning the GI tract are non-specific and therefore, diagnosing diagnoses of the GI tract require thoughtful and careful investigation. Similarly, hepatobiliary disorders may also mirror many of the signs and symptoms that patients present when suffering from GI disorders.

How might you tease out the specific signs and symptoms between these potential disorders and body systems? What drug therapy plans will best address these disorders for your patients?

This week, you examine GI and hepatobiliary disorders. You will review a patient case study and consider those factors in recommending and prescribing a drug therapy plan fo your patient.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Evaluate diagnoses for patients with gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders

Justify drug therapy plans based on patient history and diagnosis

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 64, “Drugs for Peptic Ulcer Disease” (pp. 589–597)
  • Chapter 65, “Laxatives” (pp. 598–604)
  • Chapter 66, “Other Gastrointestinal Drugs” (pp. 605–616)
  • Chapter 80, “Antiviral Agents I: Drugs for Non-HIV Viral Infections” (pp. 723–743)

Chalasani, N., Younossi, Z., Lavine, J. E., Charlton, M., Cusi, K., Rinella, M., . . . Sanya, A. J. (2018). The diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Practice guidance from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology, 67(1), 328–357. Retrieved from https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/hep.29367

This article details the diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Review this article to gain an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology as well as the suggested pharmacotherapeutics that might be recommended to treat this disorder.

Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

Gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders affect the structure and function of the GI tract. Many of these disorders often have similar symptoms, such as abdominal pain, cramping, constipation, nausea, bloating, and fatigue. Since multiple disorders can be tied to the same symptoms, it is important for advanced practice nurses to carefully evaluate patients and prescribe a treatment that targets the cause rather than the symptom.

Once the underlying cause is identified, an appropriate drug therapy plan can be recommended based on medical history and individual patient factors. In this Assignment, you examine a case study of a patient who presents with symptoms of a possible GI/hepatobiliary disorder, and you design an appropriate drug therapy plan.

To Prepare

Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment

Reflect on the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and drugs currently prescribed.

Think about a possible diagnosis for the patient. Consider whether the patient has a disorder related to the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary system or whether the symptoms are the result of a disorder from another system or other factors, such as pregnancy, drugs, or a psychological disorder.

Consider an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.

By Day 7 of Week 4

Write a 1-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Explain your diagnosis for the patient, including your rationale for the diagnosis.
  • Describe an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
  • Justify why you would recommend this drug therapy plan for this patient. Be specific and provide examples.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 4 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 4 Assignment  You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer Find the document you saved as “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submitbutton to complete your submission.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4

What’s Coming Up in Module 4?

In the next module, you will examine types of drugs prescribed to patients with endocrine disorders, such as diabetes, and you will consider the impact of patient factors on the effects of these drugs.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

 Module 4: Endocrine System

The endocrine system plays an important role in the regulation and coordination of activities throughout the body. When alterations of these systems occur, many patients require long-term drug therapies. In addition to drugs prescribed by their health care providers, patients with these disorders also often take herbal and dietary supplements. This may impact the effects of prescribed drugs, as well as pose a concern of adverse drug reactions in patients. When treating patients with endocrine disorders, it is important to educate them on associated risks. As an advanced practice nurse prescribing drugs, you must carefully consider all drug, herbal, and dietary therapies prior to finalizing treatment plans.

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 4: Endocrine System is a 1-week module, Week 5 of the course. In this module, you examine types of drugs prescribed to patients with endocrine disorders, as well as consider the impact of patient factors on the effects of drugs. You also examine types of diabetes and the impact of diabetes drugs on patients.

What do I have to do?     When do I have to do it?    
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7, Week 5
Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments Post by Day 3 of Week 5, and respond to your colleagues by Day 6 of Week 5.

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 5: Endocrine System Disorders and the Treatment of Diabetes

The endocrine system includes eight major glands throughout the body which affect such things as growth and development, metabolism, sexual function, and mood (National Institutes of Health). Some of the most commonly diagnosed endocrine disorders include hypothyroidism, diabetes, and Hashimoto’s disease. Not surprisingly, treating any one endocrine disorder may have effects on other body systems or their functions. As an advanced practice nurse, treating patients who may suffer from endocrine disorders requires an acute understanding of the structure and function of the endocrine system. Additionally, a solid understanding of patient factors and behaviors will assist in developing the best drug therapy plans possible to treat your patients. Some of most commonly diagnosed endocrine disorders include

This week, you differentiate the types of diabetes and examine the impact of diabetes drugs on patients. You also evaluate alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for diabetes management.

Reference: National Institutes of Health. (n. d.). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders. Endocrine diseases. Retrieved July 3, 2019 from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Differentiate types of diabetes
  • Evaluate the impact of diabetes drugs on patients
  • Evaluate alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for diabetes management

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 48, “Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus” (pp. 397–415)
  • Chapter 49, “Drugs for Thyroid Disorders” (pp. 416–424)

 American Diabetes Association. (2018). Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Supplement 1), S73–S85. Retrieved from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/41/supplement_1/s73.full-text.pdf

 This article provides guidance on pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment as it pertains to treating patients with diabetes. Reflect on the content of this article as you continue to examine potential drug treatments for patients with diabetes.

Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments

Each year, 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2019). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations, including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes as well as the patient’s behavior factors will impact treatment recommendations.

For this Discussion, you compare types of diabetes, including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.

Reference: American Diabetes Association. (2019). Statistics about diabetes. Retrieved from http://diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/

To Prepare

  • Review the Resources for this module and reflect on differences between types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
  • Select one type of diabetes to focus on for this Discussion.
  • Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment.
  • Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on patients, including effects of drug treatments.

By Day 3 of Week 5

Post a brief explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment. Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients. including effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples.

By Day 6 of Week 5

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different type of diabetes than you did. Provide recommendations for alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for treatment and management.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Post by Day 3 of Week 5 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 5

What’s Coming Up in Module 5?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In the next module, you will examine diagnoses for patients with neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders, and you will complete your Midterm Exam.

Looking Ahead: Midterm Exam

Please review the Resources and content in the previous modules in preparation for your Midterm Exam in Module 5.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Module 5

 Module 5: Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Systems

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 5: Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Systems is a 2-week module, Weeks 6 and 7 of the course. In this module, you will analyze drugs prescribed to treat neurological and musculoskeletal disorders and explore patient education strategies for treatment and management of these disorders. You will also evaluate the impact of patient factors on the effects of prescribed drugs and drug therapy plans for neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders. You will also complete your Midterm Exam.

What do I have to do?     When do I have to do it?    
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7, Weeks 6 and 7
Assignment: Decision Tree for Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Disorders You are encouraged to begin your Assignment in Week 6 and continue working on it in Week 7. However, this Assignment is not due until Day 7 of Week 8 in Module 6.
Midterm Exam Complete by Day 7 of Week 7.

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 6

Week 7

 Week 6: Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Disorders

Sabrina is a 26 year old female who has just been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. She has scheduled an appointment for a follow up with her physician but has several questions about her diagnosis and is calling the Nurse Helpline for her hospital network. As she talks with the advanced practice nurse, she learns that her diagnosis also impacts her neurologic and musculoskeletal systems. Although multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder, both the neurologic and musculoskeletal systems will be affected by adverse symptoms that Sabrina needs to be aware of and for which specific drug therapy plans and other treatment options need to be decided on.

As an advanced practice nurse, what types of drugs will best address potential neurologic and musculoskeletal symptoms Sabrina might experience?

This week, you will evaluate patients for the treatment of neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders by focusing on specific patient case studies through a decision tree exercise. You will analyze the decisions you will make in the decision tree exercise and reflect on your experiences in proposing the recommended actions to address the health needs in the patient case study.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Evaluate patients for treatment of neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders

Analyze decisions made throughout the diagnosis and treatment of patients with neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders

Justify decisions made throughout the diagnosis and treatment of patients with neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders

Learning Resources

Required Readings

  • Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
  • Chapter 11, “Basic Principles of Neuropharmacology” (pp. 67–71)
  • Chapter 12, “Physiology of the Peripheral Nervous System” (pp. 72–81)
  • Chapter 12, “Muscarinic Agonists and Cholinesterase Inhibitors” (pp. 82–89)
  • Chapter 14, “Muscarinic Antagonists” (pp. 90-98)
  • Chapter 15, “Adrenergic Agonists” (pp. 99–107)
  • Chapter 16, “Adrenergic Antagonists” (pp. 108–119)
  • Chapter 17, “Indirect-Acting Antiadrenergic Agents” (pp. 120–124)
  • Chapter 18, “Introduction to Central Nervous System Pharmacology” (pp. 125–126)
  • Chapter 19, “Drugs for Parkinson Disease” (pp. 127–142)
  • Chapter 20, “Drugs for Alzheimer Disease” (pp. 159–166)
  • Chapter 21, “Drugs for Seizure Disorders” (pp. 150–170)
  • Chapter 22, “Drugs for Muscle Spasm and Spasticity” (pp. 171–178)
  • Chapter 59, “Drug Therapy of Rheumatoid Arthritis” (pp. 513–527)
  • Chapter 60, “Drug Therapy of Gout” (pp. 528–536)
  • Chapter 61, “Drugs Affecting Calcium Levels and Bone Mineralization” (pp. 537–556)

American Academy of Family Physicians. (2019). Dementia. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=5

 This website provides information relating to the diagnosis, treatment, and patient education of dementia. It also presents information on complications and special cases of dementia.

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019b). Alzheimer’s disease [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

 In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics to treat Alzheimer’s disease.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019e). Complex regional pain disorder [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics to treat complex regional pain disorders.

Disorders of The Nervous System

Reflect on the comprehensive review of disorders of the nervous system and think about how you might recommend or prescribe pharmacotherapeutics to treat these disorders. (15m)

 Assignment: Decision Tree for Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders

For your Assignment, your Instructor will assign you one of the decision tree interactive media pieces provided in the Resources. As you examine the patient case studies in this module’s Resources, consider how you might assess and treat patients presenting symptoms of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders.

To Prepare

  • Review the interactive media piece assigned by your Instructor.
  • Reflect on the patient’s symptoms and aspects of the disorder presented in the interactive media piece.
  • Consider how you might assess and treat patients presenting with the symptoms of the patient case study you were assigned.
  • You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the diagnosis and treatment for this patient. Reflect on potential co-morbid physical as well as patient factors that might impact the patient’s diagnosis and treatment.

By Day 7 of Week 8

Write a 1- to 2-page summary paper that addresses the following:

  • Briefly summarize the patient case study you were assigned, including each of the three decisions you took for the patient presented.
  • Based on the decisions you recommended for the patient case study, explain whether you believe the decisions provided were supported by the evidence-based literature. Be specific and provide examples. Be sure to support your response with evidence and references from outside resources.
  • What were you hoping to achieve with the decisions you recommended for the patient case study you were assigned? Support your response with evidence and references from outside resources.
  • Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decision in the exercise. Describe whether they were different. Be specific and provide examples.

You will submit this Assignment in Week 8.

By Day 7 of Week 8

Submit your Assignment, started in Week 6.

Reminder: The Collegeof Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK8Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 8 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 8 Assignment  You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer Find the document you saved as “WK8Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submitbutton to complete your submission.

 Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 8

 What’s Coming Up in Week 7?

Next week, you will continue working on your Assignment started in Week 6, and you will complete your Midterm Exam.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Week 7

 Week 7: Midterm Exam

This week, you will continue working on your Assignment started in Week 6, and you will complete your Midterm Exam.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Identify key terms, concepts, and principles related to prescribing drugs to treat patient disorders

Midterm Exam

The Exam covers the content you have explored throughout the first 6 weeks of this course.

This exam is a test of your knowledge in preparation for your certification exam. No outside resources—including books, notes, websites, or any other type of resource—are to be used to complete this quiz. You are not allowed to take screenshots or record the exam questions in any other format while taking the exam. You are expected to comply with Walden University’s Code of Conduct.

By Day 7 of Week 7

Complete the Midterm Exam. You have 120 minutes to complete the exam. You may only attempt this exam once.

Submission and Grading Information

Complete the Exam by Day 7 of Week 7

 To Complete this Exam:

Week 7 Exam

What’s Coming Up in Module 6?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In the next module, you will examine types of drugs prescribed to patients who present with psychological disorders.

In the next module, you will examine types of drugs prescribed to patients who present with psychological disorders.

 Next Week

To go to the next week:

 Module 6: Psychological Disorders

Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel, and act…mental health is important at every stage of life, from childhood and adolescence through adulthood.

—Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018

As an advanced practice nurse, treating patients who may present with psychological disorders requires critical clinical decision making. It is your expertise in clinical decision making that will ensure that the pharmacotherapeutics and other suggested treatments prescribed to your patients will not only promote positive patient health outcomes but will lead to sustained health and well-being.

Reference: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Mental health. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/index.htm

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 6: Psychological Disorders is a 1-week module, Week 8 of the course. In this module, you will examine types of drugs prescribed to patients with psychological disorders. You also examine potential impacts of pharmacotherapeutics used to treat psychological disorders on a patient’s pathophysiology.

What do I have to do?     When do I have to do it?    
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7, Week 8
Discussion: Decision Making When Treating Psychological Disorders Post by Day 3 of Week 8, and respond to your colleagues by Day 6 of Week 8.
Assignment: Decision Tree for Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Disorders Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 8.

Go to the Week’s Content

 Week 8: Pharmacology for Psychological Disorders

How does an advanced practice nurse determine the best treatment option or pharmacotherapeutic to recommend for patients with psychological disorders?

Much like assessing or recommending pharmacotherapeutics for other conditions or disorders, as an advanced practice nurse, you may encounter a patient who presents with a psychological disorder. Understanding the guiding principles related to treating patients with psychological disorders as well as the effects of pharmacotherapeutics on a patient’s overall health and well-being is critical for the safe and effective delivery of care.

This week, you examine types of drugs prescribed to patients with psychological disorders. You also examine potential impacts of pharmacotherapeutics used to treat psychological disorders on a patient’s pathophysiology.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate patients for treatment of psychological disorders
  • Analyze decisions made throughout the diagnosis and treatment of patients with psychological disorders
  • Analyze impacts of pharmacotherapeutics for psychological disorders on patient pathophysiology
  • Evaluate patients for treatment of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders
  • Analyze decisions made throughout the diagnosis and treatment of patients with neurological and musculoskeletal disorders
  • Justify decisions made throughout the diagnosis and treatment of patients with neurological and musculoskeletal disorders

Learning Resources

Required Readings

  • Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
  • Chapter 26, “Antipsychotic Agents and Their Use in Schizophrenia” (pp. 203–213)
  • Chapter 27, “Antidepressants” (pp. 214–226)
  • Chapter 28, “Drugs for Bipolar Disorder” (pp. 228–233)
  • Chapter 29, “Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs” (pp. 234–242)
  • Chapter 30, “Management of Anxiety Disorders” (pp. 243–247)
  • Chapter 31, “Central Nervous System Stimulants and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder” (pp. 248–254)

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019a). Adult geriatric depression [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics to treat adult geriatric depression.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019c). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019d). Bipolar therapy [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics for bipolar therapy.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019g). Generalized anxiety disorder [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics to treat generalized anxiety disorder.

Discussion: Decision Making When Treating Psychological Disorders

Psychological disorders, such as depression, bipolar, and anxiety disorders can present several complications for patients of all ages. These disorders affect patients physically and emotionally, potentially impacting judgment, school and/or job performance, and relationships with family and friends. Since these disorders have many drastic effects on patients’ lives, it is important for advanced practice nurses to effectively manage patient care. With patient factors and medical history in mind, it is the advanced practice nurse’s responsibility to ensure the safe and effective diagnosis, treatment, and education of patients with psychological disorders.

For this Discussion, you will select an interactive media piece to practice decision making when treating patients with psychological disorders. You will recommend the most effective pharmacotherapeutic to treat the psychological disorder presented and examine potential impacts of pharmacotherapeutics on a patient’s pathophysiology.

To Prepare

  • Review this week’s interactive media pieces and select one to focus on for this Discussion.
  • Reflect on the decision steps in the interactive media pieces, and consider the potential impacts from the administration of the associated pharmacotherapeutics on the patient’s pathophysiology.

By Day 3 of Week 8

Post a brief explanation of the psychological disorder presented and the decision steps you applied in completing the interactive media piece for the psychological disorder you selected. Then, explain how the administration of the associated pharmacotherapeutics you recommended may impact the patient’s pathophysiology. How might these potential impacts inform how you would suggest treatment plans for this patient? Be specific and provide examples.

By Day 6 of Week 8

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different interactive media piece on a psychological disorder, and provide recommendations for alternative drug treatments to address the patient’s pathophysiology.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

What’s Coming Up in Module 7?

In the next module, you will examine types of drugs prescribed to address women’s and men’s health, infections, and disorders of the hematologic system.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Module 7: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Systems

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 7: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Systems is a 2-week module, Weeks 9 and 10 of the course. In this module, you will examine women’s and men’s health, infectious diseases, and hematologic disorders as well as the types of drugs used to treat aspects of these disorders or health systems.

What do I have to do?     When do I have to do it?    
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7, Weeks 9 and 10
Discussion: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infectious Disease, and Hematologic Disorders Post by Day 3 of Week 9, and respond to your colleagues by Day 6 of Week 10.

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 9: Women’s and Men’s Health/Infections and Hematologic Systems, Part I

As an advanced practice nurse, you will likely encounter many disorders associated with women’s and men’s health, such as hormone deficiencies, cancers, and other functional and structural abnormalities. Disorders such as these not only result in physiological consequences but also psychological consequences, such as embarrassment, guilt, or profound disappointment for patients. For these reasons, the provider-patient relationship must be carefully managed. During evaluations, patients must feel comfortable answering questions so that you, as a key health-care provider, will be able to diagnose and recommend appropriate treatment options. Advanced practice nurses must be able to educate patients on these disorders and help relieve associated stigmas and concerns.

This week, you examine women’s and men’s health concerns as well as the types of drugs used to treat disorders that affect women’s and men’s health. You also explore how to treat aspects of these disorders on other health systems.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate patients for treatment of complex health issues
  • Evaluate patients for treatment of infections
  • Evaluate patients for treatment of hematologic disorders
  • Analyze patient education strategies for the management and treatment of complex comorbidities

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 46, “Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Drugs” (pp. 364–371)
  • Chapter 47, “Drugs for Deficiency Anemias” (pp. 389–396)
  • Chapter 50, “Estrogens and Progestins: Basic Pharmacology and Noncontraceptive Applications” (pp. 425–436)
  • Chapter 51, “Birth Control” (pp. 437–446)
  • Chapter 52, “Androgens” (pp. 447–453)
  • Chapter 53, “Male Sexual Dysfunction and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia” (pp. 454–466)
  • Chapter 70, “Basic Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy” (pp. 651–661)
  • Chapter 71, “Drugs That Weaken the Bacterial Cell Wall I: Penicillins” (pp. 662–668)
  • Chapter 75, “Sulfonamides Antibiotics and Trimethoprim” (pp. 688–694)
  • Chapter 76, “Drug Therapy of Urinary Tract Infections” (pp. 695–699)
  • Chapter 78, “Miscellaneous Antibacterial Drugs” (pp. 711–714)
  • Chapter 79, “Antifungal Agents” (pp. 715–722)
  • Chapter 80, “Antiviral Agents I: Drugs for Non-HIV Viral Infections” (pp. 723–743)
  • Chapter 82, “Drug Therapy of Sexually Transmitted Diseases” (pp. 763–770)

Lunenfeld, B., Mskhalaya, G., Zitzmann, M., Arver, S., Kalinchenko, S., Tishova, Y., & Morgentaler, A. (2015). Recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of hypogonadism in men. Aging Male, 18(1), 5–15. doi:10.3109/13685538.2015.1004049

This article presents recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of hypogonadism in men. Reflect on the concepts presented and consider how this might impact your role as an advanced practice nurse in treating men’s health disorders.

Montaner, J. S. G., Lima, V. D., Harrigan, P. R., Lourenço, L., Yip, B., Nosyk, B., … Kendall, P. (2014). Expansion of HAART coverage is associated with sustained decreases in HIV/AIDS morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission: The “HIV Treatment as Prevention” experience in a Canadian setting. PLoS ONE, 9(2)e87872. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087872

This study examines HAART therapy and its sustainability and profound population-level decrease in morbidity, mortality, and HIV transmission.

Roberts, H., & Hickey, M. (2016). Managing the menopause: An update. Maturitas, 86(2016), 53–58. .https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2016.01.007

This article provides an update on treatments on Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), genito-urinary syndrome of menopause (GSM), sleep disturbance, sexual dysfunction, and mood disturbance that are common during the menopause transition.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2014). Guide to clinical preventive services, 2014: Section 2. Recommendations for adults. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/clinicians-providers/guidelines-recommendations/guide/section2.html

This website lists various preventive services available for men and women and provides information about available screenings, tests, preventive medication, and counseling.

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019h). Pathopharmacology: Pharmacology and immunological disorders: Improvements in medications and drug administration [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Note:
 The approximate length of this media piece is 8 minutes.

Nurse Manager, Bette Nunn discusses how technology has improved the practice of administering drugs and created new and improved drug therapies. The importance of using technology as well as a patient’s knowledge of their own drug history is also discussed.

Discussion: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infectious Disease, and Hematologic Disorders

As an advanced practice nurse, you will likely experience patient encounters with complex comorbidities. For example, consider a female patient who is pregnant who also presents with hypertension, diabetes, and has a recent tuberculosis infection. How might the underlying pathophysiology of these conditions affect the pharmacotherapeutics you might recommend to help address your patient’s health needs? What education strategies might you recommend for ensuring positive patient health outcomes?

For this Discussion, you will be assigned a patient case study and will consider how to address the patient’s current drug therapy plans. You will then suggest recommendations on how to revise these drug therapy plans to ensure effective, safe, and quality patient care for positive patient health outcomes.

To Prepare

  • Review the Resources for this module and reflect on the different health needs and body systems presented.
  • Your Instructor will assign you a complex case study to focus on for this Discussion.
  • Consider how you will practice critical decision making for prescribing appropriate drugs and treatment to address the complex patient health needs in the patient case study you selected.

By Day 3 of Week 9

Post a brief description of your patient’s health needs from the patient case study you assigned. Be specific. Then, explain the type of treatment regimen you would recommend for treating your patient, including the choice or pharmacotherapeutics you would recommend and explain why. Be sure to justify your response. Explain a patient education strategy you might recommend for assisting your patient with the management of their health needs. Be specific and provide examples.

You will respond to your colleagues’ posts in Week 10.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

 What’s Coming Up in Week 10?

Next week, you will continue working on your Discussion assigned in Week 9, as you examine the types of drugs used to treat infections and disorders of the hematologic system.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Week 10: Women’s and Men’s Health/Infections and Hematologic Systems, Part II

Bacterial and viral infections may spread through the direct contact of bodily fluids such as blood or through vectors, who help to spread infections via the blood. When you think of infections and the hematologic system, what comes to mind?

Infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, or other hemorrhagic fevers are some examples of infections that impact the hematologic system. However, disorders of the hematologic system, such as anemia or blood clotting factor disorders, can also have a deleterious effect on a patient’s health and well-being. As an advanced practice nurse, you will need to understand the different types of pharmacotherapeutics used to treat infections and disorders of the hematologic system as you work to enhance patient-centered approaches for safe, quality, and effective care.

This week, you will examine infections and hematologic disorders, as well as the types of drugs used to treat aspects of these disorders or health systems.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate patients for treatment of complex health issues
  • Evaluate patients for treatment of infections
  • Evaluate patients for treatment of hematologic disorders
  • Analyze patient education strategies for the management and treatment of complex comorbidities

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 46, “Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Drugs” (pp. 372–388)
  • Chapter 47, “Drugs for Deficiency Anemias” (pp. 389–396)
  • Chapter 50, “Estrogens and Progestins: Basic Pharmacology and Noncontraceptive Applications” (pp. 425–436)
  • Chapter 51, “Birth Control” (pp. 437–446)
  • Chapter 52, “Androgens” (pp. 447–453)
  • Chapter 53, “Male Sexual Dysfunction and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia” (pp. 454–466)
  • Chapter 70, “Basic Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy” (pp. 651–661)
  • Chapter 71, “Drugs That Weaken the Bacterial Cell Wall I: Penicillins” (pp. 662–668)
  • Chapter 75, “Sulfonamides Antibiotics and Trimethoprim” (pp. 688–694)
  • Chapter 76, “Drug Therapy of Urinary Tract Infections” (pp. 695–699)
  • Chapter 78, “Miscellaneous Antibacterial Drugs” (pp. 711–714)
  • Chapter 79, “Antifungal Agents” (pp. 715–722)
  • Chapter 80, “Antiviral Agents I: Drugs for Non-HIV Viral Infections” (pp. 723–743)
  • Chapter 82, “Drug Therapy of Sexually Transmitted Diseases” (pp. 763–770)

Lunenfeld, B., Mskhalaya, G., Zitzmann, M., Arver, S., Kalinchenko, S., Tishova, Y., & Morgentaler, A. (2015). Recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of hypogonadism in men. Aging Male, 18(1), 5–15. doi:10.3109/13685538.2015.1004049

This article presents recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of hypogonadism in men. Reflect on the concepts presented and consider how this might impact your role as an advanced practice nurse in treating men’s health disorders.

Montaner, J. S. G., Lima, V. D., Harrigan, P. R., Lourenço, L., Yip, B., Nosyk, B., … Kendall, P. (2014). Expansion of HAART coverage is associated with sustained decreases in HIV/AIDS morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission: The “HIV Treatment as Prevention” experience in a Canadian setting. PLoS ONE, 9(2)e87872. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087872

This study examines HAART therapy and its sustainability and profound population-level decrease in morbidity, mortality, and HIV transmission.

Roberts, H., & Hickey, M. (2016). Managing the menopause: An update. Maturitas, 86(2016), 53–58. .https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2016.01.007

This article provides an update on treatments on Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), genito-urinary syndrome of menopause (GSM), sleep disturbance, sexual dysfunction, and mood disturbance that are common during the menopause transition.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2014). Guide to clinical preventive services, 2014: Section 2. Recommendations for adults. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/clinicians-providers/guidelines-recommendations/guide/section2.html

This website lists various preventive services available for men and women and provides information about available screenings, tests, preventive medication, and counseling.

Document: Final Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019h). Pathopharmacology: Pharmacology and immunological disorders: Improvements in medications and drug administration [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Note:
 The approximate length of this media piece is 8 minutes.

Nurse Manager, Bette Nunn discusses how technology has improved the practice of administering drugs and created new and improved drug therapies. The importance of using technology as well as a patient’s knowledge of their own drug history is also discussed.

Discussion: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infectious Disease, and Hematologic Disorders

To Prepare

  • Review the resources for this module and reflect on the different health needs and body systems presented.
  • Review your peers case studies from Week 9.
  • Consider how you will practice critical decision making for prescribing appropriate drugs and treatment to address the complex patient health needs in the patient case study you selected.

By Day 6 of Week 10

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses from Week 9 and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who were assigned a different patient case study, and provide recommendations for alternative drug treatments to address the patient’s pathophysiology. Be specific and provide examples.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

What’s Coming Up in Module 8?

In the next module, you will examine prescribing drugs and the off-label use of drugs to treat pediatric patients. You will also complete your Final Exam.

Looking Ahead: Final Exam

Please review the Resources and content in the previous modules in preparation for your Final Exam in Module 8.

To go to the next week:

Module 8

Module 8: Pediatrics

As an advanced practice nurse, you provide patient care across all stages of the lifespan. While you may not necessarily specialize in pediatrics, you will likely come across pediatric patients and may be involved in developing, implementing, and recommending drug therapy plans for pediatric patients. Of special note, the proper dosing and administration of pharmacotherapeutics for pediatric patients ensures their continued growth, development, and promotion of positive health outcomes.

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 8: Pediatrics is a 1-week module, Week 11 of the course. In this module, you will examine the practice of prescribing off-label drugs to children and explore strategies for making off-label drug use safer for children. You also complete your Final Exam.

What do I have to do?     When do I have to do it?    
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7, Week 11
Assignment: Off-Label Drug Use in Pediatrics Submit your Assignment by Day 5 of Week 11.
Final Exam Complete by Day 7 of Week 11.

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 11: Pediatrics

Children, like adults, deal with variety of health issues, but they also have issues that are more prevalent within their population. One issue that significantly impacts children is the prescription of drugs for off-label use. As an advanced practice nurse, how do you determine the appropriate use of off-label drugs in pediatrics? Are there certain drugs that should be avoided with pediatric patients?

This week, you examine the practice of prescribing off-label drugs to children. You also explore strategies for making off-label drug use safer for children from infancy to adolescence, as it is essential that you are prepared to make drug-related decisions for pediatric patients in clinical settings.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate the practice of prescribing off-label drugs to children
  • Analyze strategies to make the off-label use of drugs safer for children
  • Identify key terms, concepts, and principles related to prescribing drugs to treat patient disorders

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Chapter 9, “Drug Therapy in Pediatric Patients” (pp. 58—60)

Corny, J., Lebel, D., Bailey, B., & Bussieres, J. (2015). Unlicensed and off-label drug use in children before and after pediatric governmental initiatives. The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics20(4), 316–328. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4557722/

This article highlights pediatric governmental initiatives to prevent unlicensed and off-label drug use in children. Review these initiatives and guidelines and how they might impact your practice as an advanced practice nurse.

Panther, S. G., Knotts, A. M., Odom-Maryon, T., Daratha, K., Woo, T., & Klein, T. A. (2017). Off-label prescribing trends for ADHD medications in very young children. The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 22(6), 423–429. doi:10.5863/1551-6776-22.6.423

This study examines the frequency of off-label prescribing to children and explores factors that impact off-label prescribing. This study also examines off-label prescribing to children with ADHD.

Document: Final Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019i). Therapy for pediatric clients with mood disorders [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Assignment: Off-Label Drug Use in Pediatrics

The unapproved use of approved drugs, also called off-label use, with children is quite common. This is because pediatric dosage guidelines are typically unavailable, since very few drugs have been specifically researched and tested with children.

When treating children, prescribers often adjust dosages approved for adults to accommodate a child’s weight. However, children are not just “smaller” adults. Adults and children process and respond to drugs differently in their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.

Children even respond differently during stages from infancy to adolescence. This poses potential safety concerns when prescribing drugs to pediatric patients. As an advanced practice nurse, you have to be aware of safety implications of the off-label use of drugs with this patient group.

To Prepare

  • Review the interactive media piece in this week’s Resources and reflect on the types of drugs used to treat pediatric patients with mood disorders.
  • Reflect on situations in which children should be prescribed drugs for off-label use.
  • Think about strategies to make the off-label use and dosage of drugs safer for children from infancy to adolescence. Consider specific off-label drugs that you think require extra care and attention when used in pediatrics.

By Day 5 of Week 11

Write a 1-page narrative in APA format that addresses the following:

  • Explain the circumstances under which children should be prescribed drugs for off-label use. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Describe strategies to make the off-label use and dosage of drugs safer for children from infancy to adolescence. Include descriptions and names of off-label drugs that require extra care and attention when used in pediatrics.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

Final Exam

This Exam covers the content you have explored throughout this course.

This exam is a test of your knowledge in preparation for your certification exam. No outside resources—including books, notes, websites, or any other type of resource—are to be used to complete this exam. You are not allowed to take screenshots or record the exam questions in any other format while taking the exam. You are expected to comply with Walden University’s Code of Conduct.

By Day 7 of Week 11

Complete the Final Exam.

Submission and Grading Information

Complete the Exam by Day 7 of Week 11

To Complete this Exam:

Week 11 Exam

Module in Review

In this module, you evaluated the practice and circumstances of prescribing off-label drugs to children and analyzed the strategies used to make their use and dosage safer for children. After you have completed the Discussion and the Final Exam for this week, you have finished the course. Congratulations! Please complete the Course Evaluation form and submit by Day 7.

Congratulations! After you have finished all of the assignments for this week, you have completed the course. Please submit your Course Evaluation by Day 7.

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NURS 6501N Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders Case Study Analysis Example

NURS 6501 Week 10 Assignment – Case study, STDs and Infertility AssignmentNURS 6501 Week 10 Assignment – Case study, STDs and Infertility Assignment

NURS 6501N Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders Case Study Analysis Assignment Brief

Course: NURS 6501N – Advanced Pathophysiology

Assignment Title: NURS 6501 Week 10 Assignment – Case study, STDs and Infertility

Assignment Instructions Overview

The purpose of this assignment is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiological differences between women’s and men’s health, the implications of infections, and the various hematologic disorders. Through the analysis of a case study, students will explore these concepts, applying critical thinking to interpret symptoms and laboratory results. This analysis will help in forming accurate diagnoses and effective treatment plans, considering both biological and patient-specific variables.

Understanding Assignment Objectives

This assignment aims to evaluate students’ understanding of the fundamental concepts of women’s and men’s health, common infections, and hematologic disorders. It focuses on analyzing the pathophysiological processes across different stages of life and how they are affected by gender, ethnicity, and other patient characteristics. The objective is to equip students with the knowledge necessary to communicate effectively with patients and to develop tailored treatment plans that address individual health needs.

The Student’s Role

Students are required to analyze a given case study, identify key symptoms, and interpret relevant laboratory results. The analysis should consider factors affecting fertility, reasons for elevated inflammatory markers in sexually transmitted infections and pelvic inflammatory disease, causes of prostatitis and systemic reactions, rationale behind splenectomy in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), and the various types of anemia. Students should demonstrate a thorough understanding of these concepts and provide evidence-based explanations to support their analyses.

Competencies Measured

This assignment measures the following competencies:

  • Pathophysiological Analysis: Ability to analyze and interpret the pathophysiological processes of health disorders.
  • Gender-Specific Health Issues: Understanding the differences in health disorders between men and women.
  • Infection and Inflammatory Response: Knowledge of the mechanisms behind infections and the body’s inflammatory responses.
  • Hematologic Disorders: Insight into the causes and implications of various hematologic disorders.
  • Patient-Specific Considerations: Ability to consider patient characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity in the diagnosis and treatment of health disorders.

You Can Also Check Other Related Assessments for the NURS 6501N – Advanced Pathophysiology Course:

NURS 6501N Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Week 2 Altered Physiology Assignment: Case Study Analysis Example

NURS 6501N Week 4 Case Study Analysis Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Week 5: Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Week 8: Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Case Study Analysis Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders Case Study Analysis Example

NURS 6501N Module 7 Assignment: Week 10: Concepts of Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders Case Study Analysis

Introduction

The presented case study involves a 32-year-old female who exhibits symptoms suggestive of a severe infection, possibly pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The analysis will explore factors affecting fertility related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the rise of inflammatory markers in STD/PID, the etiology of prostatitis and infection, the rationale for splenectomy in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), and the various forms of anemia.

Factors Affecting Fertility (STDs)

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are significant contributors to infertility in women. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most common STDs associated with infertility. These infections can ascend from the lower genital tract to the upper genital tract, causing PID. PID can result in inflammation and scarring of the fallopian tubes, leading to tubal factor infertility. Studies indicate that 10-15% of women with untreated chlamydia will develop PID, which in turn can lead to chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility (Tsevat et al., 2017).

Inflammatory Markers in STD/PID

Inflammatory markers such as white blood cell (WBC) count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are elevated in PID due to the body’s immune response to infection. The presence of pathogens in the reproductive tract triggers the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to increased production of these markers. Elevated WBC indicates an active infection, ESR reflects the rate of red blood cell sedimentation influenced by fibrinogen and other acute-phase reactants, and CRP is a marker of acute inflammation produced by the liver in response to cytokines (McCance & Huether, 2019).

Prostatitis and Infection: Causes and Systemic Reaction

Prostatitis often results from bacterial infection, including Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. The infection can ascend from the urethra or the bladder to the prostate gland. Systemic reactions occur as the body’s immune system responds to the infection, releasing inflammatory mediators that cause fever, chills, and other systemic symptoms. Prostatitis may also result in localized pain, urinary symptoms, and sometimes sepsis if the infection spreads (Krivan et al., 2017).

Splenectomy in ITP

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is characterized by immune-mediated destruction of platelets, primarily occurring in the spleen. Splenectomy, the surgical removal of the spleen, is considered when other treatments fail. The spleen is a major site of platelet destruction and antibody production against platelets. Removing the spleen reduces platelet destruction, thereby increasing platelet counts and reducing the risk of bleeding complications (Chaturvedi, Arnold, & McCrae, 2018).

Anemia and Its Types

Anemia is defined by a reduction in the number of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin concentration. It is classified into three main types: microcytic, normocytic, and macrocytic anemia. Microcytic anemia, characterized by small RBCs, often results from iron deficiency or thalassemia. Patients exhibit symptoms such as pallor, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Normocytic anemia involves normal-sized RBCs that are fewer in number, typically resulting from chronic disease or acute blood loss. Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, and pallor. Macrocytic anemia, characterized by larger than normal RBCs, usually results from vitamin B12 or folate deficiency. Symptoms include glossitis, neurological disturbances, and fatigue (Weiss, Ganz, & Goodnough, 2019).

Conclusion

This case study highlights the importance of understanding the interplay between infections and reproductive health, the significance of inflammatory markers in diagnosing infections, the systemic implications of bacterial infections, and the rationale behind specific treatments for hematologic disorders. A comprehensive understanding of these factors aids in accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and improved patient outcomes.

References

Chaturvedi, S., Arnold, D. M., & McCrae, K. R. (2018). Splenectomy for immune thrombocytopenia: down but not out. Blood Journal, 131(11), 1172-1182.

Krivan, G., Jolles, S., Granados, E. L., Paolantonacci, P., Ouaja, R., Cissé, O. A., & Bernatowska, E. (2017). New insights in the use of immunoglobulins for the management of immune deficiency (PID) patients. American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 6(5), 76.

McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

Tsevat, D. G., Wiesenfeld, H. C., Parks, C., & Peipert, J. F. (2017). Sexually transmitted diseases and infertility. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 216(1), 1-9.

Weiss, G., Ganz, T., & Goodnough, L. T. (2019). Anemia of inflammation. Blood Journal, 133(1), 40-50.

Detailed Assessment Instructions for the NURS 6501N Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders Case Study Analysis Assignment

Week 10: Concepts of Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders

Literature, cinema, and other cultural references have long examined differences between women and men. These observations extend well beyond obvious and even inconspicuous traits to include cultural, behavioral, and biological differences that can impact pathophysiological process and, ultimately, health.

Understanding these differences in traits and their impact on pathophysiology can better equip acute care nurses to communicate to patients of both sexes. Furthermore, APRNs who are able to communicate these differences can better guide care to patients, whatever their gender.

This week, you examine fundamental concepts of women’s and men’s health disorders. You also explore common infections and hematologic disorders, and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the life span
  • Analyze processes related to women’s and men’s health, infections, and hematologic disorders
  • Identify racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning
  • Evaluate the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology

Learning Resources

Required Readings

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 24: Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems (stop at Tests of reproductive function); Summary Review
  • Chapter 25: Alterations of the Female Reproductive System (stop at Organ prolapse); pp. 787–788 (start at Impaired fertility) (stop at Disorders of the female breast); Summary Review
  • Chapter 26: Alterations of the Male Reproductive System (stop at Hormone levels); Summary Review
  • Chapter 27: Sexually Transmitted Infections, including Summary Review
  • Chapter 28: Structure and Function of the Hematological System (stop at Clinical evaluation of the hematological system); Summary Review
  • Chapter 29: Alterations of Erythrocytes, Platelets, and Hemostatic Function, including Summary Review
  • Chapter 30: Alterations of Leukocyte and Lymphoid Function, including Summary Review

Low, N. & Broutet N. J. (2017). Sexually transmitted infections – Research priorities for new challenges. PLoS Medicine, (12), e1002481

Kessler, C. M. (2019). Immune thrombocytopenic purpura [LK1] (ITP). Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/202158-overview

Nagalia, S. (2019). Pernicious anemia[LK1] . Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/204930-overview#a3

Stauder, R., Valent, P., & Theurl, I. [LK1] (2019). Anemia at older age: Etiologies, clinical implications and management. Blood Journal, 131(5). Retrieved from http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/131/5/505?sso-checked=true

Credit Line: Anemia at older age: Etiologies, clinical implications and management by Stauder, R., Valent, P., & Theurl, I., in Blood Journal, Vol. 131/Issue 5. Copyright 2019 by American Society of Hematology. Reprinted by permission of American Society of Hematology via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Document: NURS 6501 Final Exam Review (PDF document)

Note: Use this document to help you as you review for your Final Exam in Week 11.

Required Media

Module 7 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 7 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Knowledge Check and your Assignment. (3m)

Khan Academy. (2019a). Chronic disease vs iron deficiency anemia[LK1] . Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/hematologic-system-diseases-2/iron-deficiency-anemia-and-anemia-of-chronic-disease/v/chronic-disease-vs-iron-deficiency-anemia

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 5 minutes.

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 24, 26, 28, and 30 that relate to the reproductive and hematological systems. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/

Knowledge Check: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders

In this exercise, you will complete a 10- to 20-essay type question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.

Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:

    • Sexually transmitted diseases
    • Prostate
    • Epididymitis
    • Factors that affect fertility
    • Reproductive health
    • Alterations and fertility
    • Anemia
    • ITP and TTP
    • DIC
    • Thrombocytopeni

Complete the Knowledge Check By Day 7 of Week 10

To complete this Knowledge Check:

Module 7 Knowledge Check

Module 7 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

An understanding of the factors surrounding women’s and men’s health, infections, and hematologic disorders can be critically important to disease diagnosis and treatment in these areas. This importance is magnified by the fact that some diseases and disorders manifest differently based on the sex of the patient.

Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond the human systems involved. The impact of patient characteristics, as well as racial and ethnic variables, can also have an important impact..

An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in systems based on these characteristics is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs, this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify the elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study scenario for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

A 32-year-old female presents to the ED with a chief complaint of fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and vaginal discharge. She states these symptoms started about 3 days ago, but she thought she had the flu. She has begun to have LLQ pain and notes bilateral lower back pain. She denies dysuria, foul-smelling urine, or frequency. States she is married and has sexual intercourse with her husband. PMH negative.  Labs: CBC-WBC 18, Hgb 16, Hct 44, Plat 325, ­ Neuts & Lymphs, sed rate 46 mm/hr, C-reactive protein 67 mg/L CMP wnl  Vital signs T 103.2 F Pulse 120 Resp 22 and PaO2  99% on room air. Cardio-respiratory exam WNL with the exception of tachycardia but no murmurs, rubs, clicks, or gallops. Abdominal exam + for LLQ pain on deep palpation but no rebound or rigidity. Pelvic exam demonstrates copious foul-smelling green drainage with reddened cervix and + bilateral adenexal tenderness. + chandelier sign. Wet prep in ER + clue cells and gram stain in ER + gram negative diplococci.

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following:

  • The factors that affect fertility (STDs).
  • Why inflammatory markers rise in STD/PID.
  • Why prostatitis and infection happens. Also explain the causes of systemic reaction.
  • Why a patient would need a splenectomy after a diagnosis of ITP.
  • Anemia and the different kinds of anemia (i.e., micro and macrocytic).

Day 7 of Week 10

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 10

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “M7Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Module 7 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Module 7  Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “M7Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Module 7 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Module 7 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 10

To participate in this Assignment:

Module 7 Assignment

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NURS 6501N Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Case Study Analysis Example

NURS 6501N Week 8: Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Case Study Analysis AssignmentNURS 6501N Week 8: Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Case Study Analysis Assignment

NURS 6501N Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Case Study Analysis Assignment Brief

Course: NURS 6501N – Advanced Pathophysiology

Assignment Title: NURS 6501N Week 8: Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Case Study Analysis Assignment

Assignment Instructions Overview

This assignment focuses on analyzing a case study related to neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, exploring their pathophysiologic processes and the impact of racial/ethnic variables on physiological functioning. Students will investigate how these systems interact to affect patient health.

Understanding Assignment Objectives

Students are tasked with:

  • Analyzing pathophysiologic processes related to neurological and musculoskeletal disorders.
  • Identifying racial/ethnic variables that may influence physiological functioning.
  • Evaluating the interaction between neurological and musculoskeletal processes in impacting patient health.

The Student’s Role

As a student, your role is to critically analyze the presented case study, applying knowledge of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders acquired through course readings and media resources. You will demonstrate understanding of disease mechanisms and their implications for patient care.

Competencies Measured

This assignment assesses competencies in:

  • Analytical thinking: Ability to dissect complex symptoms and relate them to underlying disease processes.
  • Cultural competence: Understanding the role of racial and ethnic factors in disease manifestation and management.
  • Communication: Effectively conveying diagnostic considerations and treatment implications based on identified pathophysiological mechanisms.

You Can Also Check Other Related Assessments for the NURS 6501N – Advanced Pathophysiology Course:

NURS 6501N Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Week 2 Altered Physiology Assignment: Case Study Analysis Example

NURS 6501N Week 4 Case Study Analysis Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Week 5: Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6501 Week 10 Assignment – Case study, STDs and Infertility Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Case Study Analysis Example

NURS 6501N Week 8 Case Study Analysis Assignment: Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders

Introduction

This case study analysis explores the neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes in a 67-year-old man diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease (PD). It examines the racial and ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning and how these processes interact to affect the patient.

Neurological and Musculoskeletal Pathophysiologic Processes

Parkinson’s Disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra region of the brain. Dopamine is essential for smooth, coordinated muscle movements. As dopamine levels decline, patients experience tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability (DeMaagd & Philip, 2015).

In the presented case, the patient’s symptoms, such as tremors in the arms and legs, “pill-rolling” movement, rigidity, and shuffling gait, are classic manifestations of PD. The mask-like facial expression and cogwheel rigidity observed during the physical exam further support this diagnosis. The musculoskeletal symptoms stem from the neurological deficits, leading to muscle stiffness and difficulty in initiating movements (DeMaagd & Philip, 2015).

Racial and Ethnic Variables Impacting Physiological Functioning

The prevalence and progression of Parkinson’s Disease can vary among different racial and ethnic groups due to genetic, environmental, and socio-cultural factors. Research indicates that African Americans and Asians have a lower prevalence of PD compared to Caucasians. This discrepancy may be attributed to genetic variations, differences in environmental exposures, and potential disparities in access to healthcare and diagnostic services (Sauerbier et al., 2018; Dahodwala et al., 2009).

Socio-cultural factors can influence the patient’s awareness and understanding of PD, potentially delaying diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, dietary habits, levels of physical activity, and exposure to neurotoxins can vary between ethnic groups, potentially impacting disease onset and progression (Sauerbier et al., 2018).

Interaction of Processes to Affect the Patient

The neurological and musculoskeletal processes in Parkinson’s Disease are interrelated. The degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons leads to motor symptoms, such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia. These motor deficits result in secondary musculoskeletal complications, including muscle stiffness, joint pain, and postural abnormalities (DeMaagd & Philip, 2015).

Racial and ethnic factors can exacerbate these issues by influencing the patient’s overall health, access to healthcare, and lifestyle. For example, if the patient belongs to an ethnic group with limited access to healthcare resources, he may experience delays in diagnosis and treatment, worsening his symptoms. Additionally, socio-cultural differences in diet and physical activity can impact the severity of musculoskeletal symptoms and overall disease progression (Sauerbier et al., 2018).

Conclusion

Parkinson’s Disease involves complex interactions between neurological and musculoskeletal systems, significantly impacting patients’ quality of life. Racial and ethnic variables can influence disease prevalence, progression, and patient outcomes. Understanding these factors is crucial for providing comprehensive care and developing effective treatment plans for individuals with Parkinson’s Disease.

References

Dahodwala, N., Siderowf, A., Xie, M., Noll, E., Stern, M., & Mandell, D. (2009). Racial differences in the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 24(8), 1200-1205. https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.22557

DeMaagd, G., & Philip, A. (2015). Parkinson’s disease and Its Management: Part 1: Disease Entity, Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation, and Diagnosis. Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 40(8), 504-532. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4517533/

Sauerbier, A., Aris, A., Lim, E., Bhattacharya, K., & Chaudhuri, K. (2018). Impact of ethnicity on the natural history of Parkinson disease. Medical Journal of Australia, 208(9), 410-414. Retrieved from https://www.mja.com.au/system/files/issues/208_09/10.5694mja17.01074.pdf

Detailed Assessment Instructions for the NURS 6501N Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Case Study Analysis Assignment

Week 8: Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders – Part 2

As homeowners know all too well, there is a continuous need for maintenance and repair. Some efforts are precautionary in nature, while others are the result of issues that surface over time.

Similarly, musculoskeletal disorders can develop over time. For some disorders, such as osteoporosis, precautionary treatments are a potential option. But much like issues that surface in a home over time, many musculoskeletal issues can be very serious concerns, and they can have a significant impact on patients’ lives.

This week, you continue to examine fundamental concepts of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. You explore common disorders that impact these systems and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze processes related to neurological and musculoskeletal disorders
  • Identify racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning
  • Evaluate the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology

Learning Resources

Note: The below resources were first presented in Week 7. If you have previously reviewed them, you are encouraged to read or view them again here.

Required Readings

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 15: Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems (stop at Aging and the nervous system)
  • Chapter 16: Pain, Temperature Regulation, Sleep, and Sensory Function (stop at Sleep); Summary Review
  • o   Chapter 17: Alterations in Cognitive Systems, Cerebral Hemodynamics, and Motor Function; pp. 504–511, pp. 516–530 (start at Acute confusional states and delirium) (stop at Alterations in neuromotor functions); (Parkinson’s Disease); Summary Review
  • Chapter 18: Disorders of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and the Neuromuscular Junction (stop at Degenerative disorders of the spine); (start at Cerebrovascular disorders) (stop at Tumors of the central nervous system); Summary Review
  • Chapter 44: Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System (stop at Components of muscle function); Summary Review
  • Chapter 45: Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function (stop at Bone tumors); (start at Disorders of joints); Summary Review

Chin, L. S. (2018). Spinal cord injuries. Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/793582-overview#a4

Required Media

Khan Academy. (2019b). Ischemic stroke. Retrieved from ttps://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/circulatory-system-diseases/stroke/v/ischemic-stroke

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 8 minutes.

Osmosis.org. (2019, June 12). Osteoporosis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jUQ_tt_zJDo

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 9 minutes.

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 15, 16, 18, and the sections of Chapters 44 and 45 that relate to the neurological and musculoskeletal systems. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/

Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

An understanding of the neurological and musculoskeletal systems is a critically important component of disease and disorder diagnosis and treatment. This importance is magnified by the impact that that these two systems can have on each other. A variety of factors and circumstances affecting the emergence and severity of issues in one system can also have a role in the performance of the other.

Effective analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond these systems and their mutual impact. For example, patient characteristics such as, racial and ethnic variables can play a role.

An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in neurological and musculoskeletal systems is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment. For APRNs this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify the elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study scenario for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following:

  • Both the neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes that would account for the patient presenting these symptoms.
  • Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.
  • How these processes interact to affect the patient.

Week 8 Case Study:

A 67-year-old man presents to the HCP with a chief complaint of tremors in his arms. He also has noticed some tremors in his leg as well. The patient is accompanied by his son, who says that his father has become “stiff” and it takes him much longer to perform simple tasks. The son also relates that his father needs help rising from his chair. Physical exam demonstrates tremors in the hands at rest and fingers exhibit “pill-rolling” movement. The patient’s face is not mobile and exhibits a mask-like appearance. His gait is uneven, and he shuffles when he walks and his head/neck, hips, and knees are flexed forward. He exhibits jerky or cogwheeling movement. The patient states that he has episodes of extreme sweating and flushing not associated with the activity. Laboratory data unremarkable and the HCP has diagnosed the patient with Parkinson’s Disease.

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following:

  • Both the neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes that would account for the patient presenting these symptoms.
  • Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.
  • How these processes interact to affect the patient.

Day 7 of Week 8

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 8.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “M5Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Module 5 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Module 5 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “M5Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Module 5 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Module 5 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 8

To participate in this Assignment:

Module 5 Assignment

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NURS 6501N Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Paper Example

NURS 6501N Week 5: Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders AssignmentNURS 6501N Week 5: Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment

NURS 6501N Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Paper Assignment Brief

Course: NURS 6501N – Advanced Pathophysiology

Assignment Title: NURS 6501N Week 5: Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment

Assignment Instructions Overview

This assignment focuses on understanding the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders. Students will explore various common disorders within these categories, analyzing their causes, symptoms, and impacts on patients. The aim is to apply key terms and concepts to communicate effectively about these conditions.

Understanding Assignment Objectives

The primary objective is to enhance students’ comprehension of the pathophysiological processes underlying GI and hepatobiliary disorders across the lifespan. This involves examining the structure and function of relevant systems and understanding how alterations can lead to disease.

The Student’s Role

Students are expected to actively engage with the provided resources, including textbook chapters, academic articles, and multimedia content. They should critically analyze the material, apply theoretical concepts to practical scenarios, and demonstrate their knowledge through a series of essay-type questions in the Knowledge Check.

Competencies Measured

This assignment measures students’ abilities to:

  • Analyze and explain the pathophysiology of GI and hepatobiliary disorders.
  • Apply theoretical knowledge to real-world clinical situations.
  • Communicate complex medical concepts in a clear and concise manner.
  • Demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of how these disorders impact patients’ lives.

You Can Also Check Other Related Assessments for the NURS 6501N – Advanced Pathophysiology Course:

NURS 6501N Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Week 2 Altered Physiology Assignment: Case Study Analysis Example

NURS 6501N Week 4 Case Study Analysis Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Week 8: Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Case Study Analysis Assignment Example

NURS 6501 Week 10 Assignment – Case study, STDs and Infertility Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Paper Example

Scenario 1: Peptic Ulcer Disease

Question 1:

The patient has been using ibuprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which is a significant cause of peptic ulcers. Additionally, smoking tobacco, consuming excessive caffeine, drinking alcohol, and psychological stress are contributing factors.

Question 2:

Ibuprofen contributes to peptic ulcer development by inhibiting the stomach’s ability to protect itself from gastric acid, reducing prostaglandin production, which normally protects the stomach lining. Smoking damages the gastroduodenal mucosa, increasing the risk of PUD. Ethanol in alcohol irritates the gastric lining, and caffeine increases acid production, all contributing to ulcer formation (Lanas & Chan, 2019).

Scenario 2: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

GERD is caused by frequent acid reflux, where stomach acids backwash into the esophagus, causing burning pain. Smoking exacerbates this by relaxing the lower esophageal sphincter, while alcohol and coffee increase acid production. Obesity and connective tissue disorders are additional risk factors (Clarrett & Hachem, 2018).

Scenario 3: Upper GI Bleed

Upper GI bleeding occurs in the esophagus, stomach, or the beginning of the small intestine. It ranges from life-threatening to minor, detectable by stool tests. Common causes include peptic ulcers, esophageal varices (common in liver disease patients), and esophagitis (Steele, 2020).

Scenario 4: Diverticulitis

Diverticulitis results from the pressure build-up in the colon due to insufficient fiber in the diet, leading to constipation. Repeated pressure and straining cause diverticulosis, where small pouches (diverticula) form in the colon. These pouches can become inflamed or infected, resulting in diverticulitis (Young-Fadok, 2018).

Scenario 5: Portal Hypertension

Portal hypertension, often associated with cirrhosis from excessive alcohol consumption, occurs when blood flow through the liver is obstructed, causing increased pressure in the portal vein. This leads to complications like varices and ascites (Arab, Barrera & Arrese, 2017).

Part 2: Ascites

Ascites, the accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, is caused by portal hypertension. High pressure in the portal veins leads to leakage of protein-rich fluid from the liver and intestines into the abdomen (Arab, Barrera & Arrese, 2017).

Scenario 6: Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE)

Hepatic encephalopathy is a decline in brain function due to severe liver disease. Cirrhosis impairs the liver’s ability to remove toxins from the blood, leading to their accumulation in the brain, causing confusion, disorientation, and flapping tremors (Ferenci, 2017).

Scenario 7: Sudden Onset of Abdominal Pain

Sudden abdominal pain may indicate gastrointestinal ulcers, which can cause internal bleeding, affecting blood pressure and heart function. Untreated ulcers can lead to severe complications like heart attacks (Steele, 2020).

Scenario 8: Acute Cholecystitis

Question 1:

Gallstones are hard deposits of bile that form in the gallbladder due to excessive cholesterol, bilirubin, or inadequate bile salts. These stones can block the bile ducts, causing the gallbladder to enlarge and bile ducts to dilate (Ibrahim et al., 2018).

Question 2:

Jaundice occurs when excess bilirubin accumulates in the body due to the liver’s inability to filter it from the blood, often because of blocked bile ducts or liver dysfunction, leading to yellowing of the skin and eyes.

Scenario 9: Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis develops when digestive enzymes activate within the pancreas, causing inflammation. Chronic alcohol consumption is a major risk factor, as ethanol metabolism produces harmful byproducts that damage pancreatic cells, leading to chronic inflammation (Kleeff et al., 2017).

Scenario 10: Hepatitis B

Symptoms of Hepatitis B, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and dark urine, along with a history of risky behaviors like unprotected sex and needle sharing, indicate a Hepatitis B infection (Terrault et al., 2018).

Scenario 11: Ulcerative Colitis (UC)

Ulcerative colitis is an immune-mediated condition where the body’s immune system attacks the cells of the digestive tract, causing inflammation and ulcers in the colon and rectum (Xu et al., 2019).

Scenario 12: Acute Kidney Injury

The patient is suffering from postrenal acute kidney injury due to nephropathy obstruction, leading to restricted urine flow. This type of AKI is associated with symptoms like lower extremity swelling and can result from congenital defects or other blockages (Mehran, Dangas & Weisbrod, 2019).

Scenario 13: Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

The APRN should explain the components of GFR, which estimates blood flow through the glomeruli. Understanding normal GFR and factors affecting it helps in diagnosing renal function disorders (Bersie et al., 2020).

Scenario 14: Autoregulation

Autoregulation involves the body’s ability to maintain stable blood flow despite changes in blood pressure. The APRN should explain the relationship between blood flow, pressure, and how the body adjusts to maintain homeostasis (Wang, Ortega-Gutierrez & Peterson, 2018).

Scenario 15: Hormonal Regulation

The APRN should discuss hormonal regulation, focusing on the feedback mechanisms and the role of the thyroid system in maintaining homeostasis. Understanding how organs produce and regulate hormones is crucial (Bersie et al., 2020).

Scenario 16: Pyelonephritis

Pyelonephritis is kidney inflammation due to bacterial infection, often caused by urinary tract obstruction, which allows bacteria to multiply and spread to the kidneys (Johnson & Russo, 2018).

Scenario 17: Chronic Renal Failure

Chronic renal failure is primarily caused by diabetes and hypertension. High blood sugar and pressure damage kidney blood vessels, impairing function and leading to kidney failure over time (Mehran, Dangas & Weisbrod, 2019).

References

Arab, J. P., Barrera, F., & Arrese, M. (2017). Bile acids and portal hypertension. Annals of Hepatology, 16, S83-S86.

Bersie Larson, L. M., Gyoneva, L., Goodman, D. J., Dorfman, K. D., Segal, Y., & Barocas, V. H. (2020). Glomerular filtration and podocyte tensional homeostasis: Importance of the minor type IV collagen network. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology.

Clarrett, D. M., & Hachem, C. (2018). Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Missouri Medicine, 115(3), 214.

Ferenci, P. (2017). Hepatic encephalopathy. Gastroenterology Report, 5(2), 138-147.

Ibrahim, M., Sarvepalli, S., Morris-Stiff, G., Rizk, M., Bhatt, A., Walsh, R. M., … & Burke, C. A. (2018). Gallstones: Watch and wait or intervene. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 85(4), 323-331.

Johnson, J. R., & Russo, T. A. (2018). Acute pyelonephritis in adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 378(1), 48-59.

Kleeff, J., Whitcomb, D. C., Shimosegawa, T., Esposito, I., Lerch, M. M., Gress, T., … & Muñoz, J. E. D. (2017). Chronic pancreatitis. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 3(1), 1-18.

Lanas, A., & Chan, F. K. (2019). Peptic ulcer disease. The Lancet, 390(10094), 613-624.

Mehran, R., Dangas, G. D., & Weisbord, S. D. (2019). Contrast-associated acute kidney injury. New England Journal of Medicine, 380(22), 2146-2155.

Steele, C. (2020). Upper GI bleed. In Resources for Optimal Care of Emergency Surgery (pp. 137-137). Springer, Cham.

Terrault, N. A., Lok, A. S., McMahon, B. J., Chang, K. M., Hwang, J. P., Jonas, M. M., … & Wong, J. B. (2018). Update on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic hepatitis B: AASLD 2018 hepatitis B guidance. Hepatology, 67(4), 1560-1599.

Wang, A., Ortega-Gutierrez, S., & Petersen, N. H. (2018). Autoregulation in the Neuro ICU. Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 20(6), 20.

Xu, X., Yang, W., Liang, Q., Shi, Y., Zhang, W., Wang, X., … & Yin, L. (2019). Efficient and targeted drug/siRNA co-delivery mediated by reversibly crosslinked polymersomes toward the anti-inflammatory treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Nano Research, 12(3), 659-667.

Young-Fadok, T. M. (2018). Diverticulitis. New England Journal of Medicine, 379(17), 1635-1642.

Detailed Assessment Instructions for the NURS 6501N Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment

Week 5: Concepts of Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

Patients of gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders often face life-altering changes, including changes to diet, new treatment regimens, and more. For some disorders, treatments can include surgery.

Gastrointestinal conditions, such as ulcers, diverticulitis, and pancreatitis, often cause varying levels of pain and discomfort. Hepatobiliary conditions can also bring significant changes to patient routines and well-being.

This week, you examine fundamental concepts of gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders. You explore common disorders in these categories, and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the life span

Learning Resources

Required Readings

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 38: Structure and Function of the Renal and Urological Systems including Summary Review
  • Chapter 39: Alteration of Renal and Urinary Function (stop at Fluids and electrolytes); Summary Review
  • Chapter 41: Structure and Function of the Digestive System (stop at Tests of digestive function); Summary Review
  • Chapter 42: Alterations of Digestive Function (stop at Cancer of the digestive track); Summary Review

Osna, N. A., Donohue, T. M., Jr., & Kharbanda, K. K. (2017). Alcoholic liver disease: Pathogenesis and current management. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 38(2), 7–21

Document: NURS 6501 Midterm Exam Review (PDF document)

Note: Use this document to help you as you review for your Midterm Exam in Week 6.

Required Media

Module 3 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 3 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Knowledge Check. (2m)

Liver Function Tests

MedCram. (2013, April 14). Liver function tests LFTs explained clearly by MedCram.com [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bFdTgty0T0I

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 11 minutes.

Liver Diseases

MedCram. (2019, May 15). Diagnosis of key liver diseases: Hepatitis A, B C vs. alcoholic vs. ischemic (AST vs ALT labs) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZZRHA2JvCGA

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.

Liver Pathophysiology

MedCram. (2013, April 9). Liver explained clearly: Pathophysiology, LFTs, hepatic diseases  [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BTGkB8nOu7g

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 14 minutes.

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 41 and 42 that relate to the hepatobiliary system. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/

Knowledge Check: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

In this exercise, you will complete a 10- to 20-essay type question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.

Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:

    • Ulcers
    • Hepatitis markers
    • After HP shots
    • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
    • Pancreatitis
    • Liver failure—acute and chronic
    • Gall bladder disease
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
    • Diverticulitis
    • Jaundice
    • Bilirubin
    • Gastrointestinal bleed – upper and lower
    • Hepatic encephalopathy
    • Intra-abdominal infections (e.g., appendicitis)
    • Renal blood flow
    • Glomerular filtration rate
    • Kidney stones
    • Infections – urinary tract infections, pyelonephritis
    • Acute kidney injury
    • Renal failure – acute and chronic

Complete the Knowledge Check By Day 7 of Week 5

To complete this Knowledge Check:

Module 3 Knowledge Check

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NURS 6501N Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Case Study Analysis Example

NURS 6501N Week 4 Case Study Analysis AssignmentNURS 6501N Week 4 Case Study Analysis Assignment

NURS 6501N Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Case Study Analysis Assignment Brief

Course: NURS 6501N – Advanced Pathophysiology

Assignment Title: NURS 6501N Week 4 Case Study Analysis Assignment

Assignment Instructions Overview

This assignment focuses on the analysis of cardiovascular and respiratory disorders through a case study. The objective is to understand the pathophysiologic processes, the impact of racial/ethnic variables, and how these processes interact within the patient. This involves a detailed examination of symptoms, diagnosis, and the implications for patient health.

Understanding Assignment Objectives

The primary objectives are to:

  • Analyze the pathophysiologic processes related to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders.
  • Examine the alterations in these systems and their resultant disease processes.
  • Understand the influence of racial and ethnic variables on physiological functioning.
  • Evaluate how patient characteristics impact disorders and altered physiology.

The Student’s Role

Students are expected to:

  • Engage in a thorough review of relevant medical literature and course materials.
  • Critically analyze a provided case study scenario.
  • Identify and explain the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes presented in the case.
  • Discuss any racial/ethnic variables that may influence physiological functioning.
  • Assess how these processes interact to affect the patient’s health.
  • Compile a 1-2 page case study analysis that adheres to academic standards and formatting guidelines provided by the institution.

Competencies Measured

The assignment measures several competencies, including:

  • Critical Thinking: Ability to analyze complex medical scenarios and synthesize information from various sources.
  • Clinical Knowledge: Understanding of cardiovascular and respiratory systems, disease processes, and treatment protocols.
  • Cultural Competence: Awareness of how racial and ethnic variables can impact health and disease outcomes.
  • Communication: Ability to articulate findings clearly and effectively in written form.
  • Research Skills: Proficiency in sourcing and referencing relevant academic literature.

You Can Also Check Other Related Assessments for the NURS 6501N – Advanced Pathophysiology Course:

NURS 6501N Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Week 2 Altered Physiology Assignment: Case Study Analysis Example

NURS 6501N Week 5: Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Week 8: Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Case Study Analysis Assignment Example

NURS 6501 Week 10 Assignment – Case study, STDs and Infertility Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Case Study Analysis Example

NURS 6501N Week 4 Case Study Analysis Assignment: COPD Exacerbation

Introduction

This case study examines a 45-year-old woman presenting with shortness of breath, a worsening cough with thick green sputum, and fevers over three days. She has a history of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) with a chronic cough, which has exacerbated recently, disrupting her sleep. The patient’s clinical presentation, including a flattened diaphragm, increased anterior-posterior (AP) diameter on chest X-ray (CXR), and hyper resonance with coarse rales and rhonchi on auscultation, indicates an acute exacerbation of COPD. This analysis explores the cardiovascular and respiratory pathophysiological processes underlying her symptoms, considers any racial/ethnic factors affecting her condition, and examines how these processes interact to impact her health.

Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiologic Processes

COPD is characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation due to airway and/or alveolar abnormalities, typically caused by significant exposure to noxious particles or gases (McCance & Huether, 2019). The pathophysiological processes in COPD involve chronic inflammation, airway remodeling, and destruction of pulmonary structures, leading to obstructed airflow, air trapping, and hyperinflation (Inamdar & Inamdar, 2016).

In this patient, the exacerbation symptoms—shortness of breath, increased cough with thick sputum, and fever—suggest a possible bacterial infection, complicating her COPD. The thickened sputum and fever indicate an inflammatory response to infection, which exacerbates the chronic inflammatory state of COPD (McCance & Huether, 2019). The increased work of breathing due to airflow obstruction and hyperinflation leads to a flattened diaphragm and an increased AP diameter on CXR. Hyper resonance on auscultation indicates air trapping, while coarse rales and rhonchi suggest secretions in the airways.

Racial/Ethnic Variables Impacting Physiological Functioning

Racial and ethnic factors can significantly impact the presentation and progression of COPD. Studies have shown that African Americans and other minority groups often experience higher morbidity and mortality rates related to COPD compared to their white counterparts. Factors contributing to these disparities include genetic predispositions, socioeconomic status, environmental exposures, and access to healthcare (CDC, 2016).

African Americans, for example, may have a higher prevalence of certain risk factors such as smoking, urban living with greater exposure to air pollutants, and lower socioeconomic status, all of which can exacerbate COPD. Additionally, genetic factors may influence the severity and progression of the disease. These variables can lead to differences in how COPD manifests and progresses among different racial and ethnic groups (McCance & Huether, 2019).

Interaction of Processes Affecting the Patient

The interplay between the respiratory and cardiovascular systems is crucial in understanding this patient’s condition. COPD can lead to pulmonary hypertension due to chronic hypoxia and vasoconstriction in the pulmonary arteries. This increases the workload on the right side of the heart, potentially leading to right-sided heart failure, also known as cor pulmonale (McCance & Huether, 2019).

In this patient, the acute exacerbation increases the severity of hypoxia, further straining the cardiovascular system. The increased effort to breathe due to airflow limitation and hyperinflation causes significant respiratory muscle fatigue. As the respiratory muscles tire, the efficiency of ventilation decreases, leading to worsening hypercapnia (elevated CO2 levels) and hypoxemia (decreased O2 levels), which can have systemic effects, including increased cardiac workload and potential for arrhythmias (Inamdar & Inamdar, 2016).

Conclusion

This case study highlights the complex interplay between the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in a patient with an acute exacerbation of COPD. Understanding the pathophysiological processes involved in COPD, including chronic inflammation, airway remodeling, and airflow limitation, is critical for effective diagnosis and management. Racial and ethnic variables, such as socioeconomic status and environmental exposures, play a significant role in the progression and outcomes of COPD. Addressing these factors is essential for improving patient care and reducing health disparities. The interaction of these processes underscores the importance of a comprehensive approach to managing COPD, particularly during acute exacerbations.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2016). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/copd/index.html

Inamdar, A. A., & Inamdar, A. C. (2016). Heart failure: Diagnosis, management, and utilization. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5(7), 62. doi:10.3390/jcm5070062

McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

Detailed Assessment Instructions for the NURS 6501N Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Case Study Analysis Assignment

Week 4: Alterations in the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

Cardiovascular and respiratory disorders can quickly become dangerous healthcare matters, and they routinely land among the leading causes of hospital admissions. Disorders in these areas are complicated by the fact that these two systems work so closely as contributors to overall health. APRNs working to form a similarly close partnership with patients must demonstrate not only support and compassion, but expertise to guide the understanding of diagnoses and treatment plans. This includes an understanding of patient medical backgrounds, relevant characteristics, and other variables that can be factors in their diagnoses and treatments.

This week, you examine alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the resultant disease processes. You also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, and the impact they have on altered physiology.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze processes related to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders
  • Analyze alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the resultant disease processes
  • Analyze racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning
  • Evaluate the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology

Learning Resources

Required Readings

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 32: Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems; Summary Review
  • Chapter 33: Alterations of Cardiovascular Function (stop at Dysrhythmias); Summary Review
  • Chapter 35: Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System; Summary Review
  • Chapter 36: Alterations of Pulmonary Function (stop at Disorders of the chest wall and pleura); (obstructive pulmonary diseases) (stop at Pulmonary artery hypertension); Summary Review

Note: The above chapters were first presented in the Week 3 resources. If you read them previously you are encouraged to review them this week.

Inamdar, A. A. & Inamdar, A. C. (2016). Heart failure: Diagnosis, management, and utilization, 5(7). doi:10.3390/jcm5070062

Note: The above article was first presented in the Week 3 resources. If you read it previously you are encouraged to review it this week.

Required Media

Pneumonia

MedCram. (2015, September 14). Pneumonia explained clearly by MedCram [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqyPECmkSeo

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.
(Previously reviewed in Week 3)

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 32, 33, 35, and 36 that relate to cardiorespiratory systems and alteration in cardiorespiratory systems. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/

Module 2 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

An understanding of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is a critically important component of disease diagnosis and treatment. This importance is magnified by the fact that these two systems work so closely together. A variety of factors and circumstances that impact the emergence and severity of issues in one system can have a role in the performance of the other.

Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond these systems and their capacity to work together. The impact of patient characteristics, as well as racial and ethnic variables, can also have an important impact.

An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in cardiovascular and respiratory systems is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify the elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

Scenario 4 (week 4):

45-year-old woman presents with the chief complaint of 3-day duration of shortness of breath, cough with thick green sputum production, and fevers. The patient has a history of COPD with a chronic cough but states the cough has gotten much worse and is interfering with her sleep. Sputum is thicker and harder for her to expectorate. CXR reveals a flattened diaphragm and an increased AP diameter. Auscultation demonstrates hyper resonance and coarse rales and rhonchi throughout all lung fields.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study scenario for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following

The cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes that result in the patient presenting these symptoms.

Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.

How these processes interact to affect the patient.

By Day 7 of Week 4

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following

  • The cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes that result in the patient presenting these symptoms.
  • Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.
  • How these processes interact to affect the patient.

By Day 7 of Week 4

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “M2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Module 2 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Module 2 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “M2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Module 2 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Module 2 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4

To participate in this Assignment:

Module 2 Assignment

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NURS 6501N Altered Physiology Case Study Analysis Example

NURS 6501N Week 2 Altered Physiology Assignment: Case Study AnalysisNURS 6501N Week 2 Altered Physiology Assignment: Case Study Analysis

NURS 6501N Altered Physiology Case Study Analysis Assignment Brief

Course: NURS 6501N – Advanced Pathophysiology

Assignment Title: NURS 6501N Week 2 Altered Physiology Assignment: Case Study Analysis

Assignment Instructions Overview

This assignment involves analyzing a case study to understand the physiological alterations within the immune system that lead to disease. Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) must demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of disease processes, patient backgrounds, and other relevant factors to provide effective care and education to patients. You will be required to utilize the course readings and resources to support your analysis.

Understanding Assignment Objectives

The primary objectives of this assignment are to:

  • Evaluate Cellular Processes: Examine how alterations within cellular processes contribute to disease development.
  • Analyze Immune System Alterations: Identify and describe changes in the immune system that result in specific disease processes.
  • Identify Racial/Ethnic Variables: Recognize how racial and ethnic factors may impact physiological functioning and disease progression.
  • Evaluate Patient Characteristics: Assess how individual patient characteristics affect disorders and altered physiological states.

The Student’s Role

As a student, your role is to:

  • Carefully review the assigned case study and associated symptoms.
  • Conduct a detailed analysis to explain why the patient presented with the described symptoms.
  • Identify any genetic factors that may be contributing to the disease.
  • Discuss the process of immunosuppression and its effects on body systems.
  • Utilize evidence from the course readings and additional resources to support your analysis and conclusions.

Competencies Measured

This assignment will help measure the following competencies:

  • Critical Thinking: Ability to analyze complex scenarios and understand the underlying physiological processes.
  • Application of Knowledge: Application of pathophysiological concepts to real-world case studies.
  • Research and Evidence-Based Practice: Integration of current research and evidence to support clinical reasoning and decision-making.
  • Communication: Clear and concise presentation of analysis and findings in a professional, academic format.

You Can Also Check Other Related Assessments for the NURS 6501N – Advanced Pathophysiology Course:

NURS 6501N Week 1 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Week 4 Case Study Analysis Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Week 5: Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Week 8: Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Case Study Analysis Assignment Example

NURS 6501 Week 10 Assignment – Case study, STDs and Infertility Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Altered Physiology Case Study Analysis Example

Week 2 Case Study Analysis: Altered Physiology

Introduction

Understanding the underlying cellular and genetic mechanisms of diseases is critical for diagnosing and managing patient conditions. This analysis will examine a patient’s symptoms, identify relevant genes associated with the disease, and explain the process and impact of immunosuppression on the body.

Symptoms and Disease Presentation

The patient presents with crampy left lower quadrant pain, which is a common symptom of diverticulitis. Diverticulitis is an inflammation or infection of the diverticula, small pouches that can form in the walls of the digestive tract. This condition is often associated with lower abdominal pain, fever, and changes in bowel habits such as constipation or diarrhea. The patient’s dietary habits, particularly a low fiber intake, contribute to the development of diverticulitis by causing harder stools and increased bowel pressure (Feuerstein & Falchuk, 2016).

Genetic Factors

Given the patient’s family history, with a grandfather who died of colon cancer, there is a significant genetic component to consider. Colon cancer can be inherited through mutations in several genes, most notably MSH6, MSH2 (both located on chromosome 2), and MLH1 (located on chromosome 3). These genes are involved in DNA mismatch repair. Mutations in these genes result in the accumulation of DNA errors, leading to the development of cancerous cells (American Cancer Society, n.d.).

Immunosuppression and Its Effects

Immunosuppression refers to the reduction of the immune system’s efficacy, which can be caused by diseases like HIV or by drugs used in conditions such as cancer or post-organ transplantation to prevent rejection (Axelrad, Lichtiger, & Yajnik, 2016). The administration of immunosuppressive drugs, such as corticosteroids, cyclosporine, and azathioprine, can profoundly impact the body’s immune response. While these drugs help in preventing the rejection of transplanted organs, they also make the body more susceptible to infections and malignancies due to the suppressed immune response (Rosenthal & Moore, 2015).

Immunosuppression can lead to several systemic effects, including:

  • Increased Infection Risk: The body becomes less capable of fighting off pathogens, leading to a higher susceptibility to infections.
  • Muscle and Bone Effects: Immunosuppressive drugs can lead to decreased muscle function and bone density, increasing the risk of fractures and osteoporosis.
  • Metabolic Changes: These drugs can alter the body’s glucose metabolism, increasing the risk of high blood sugar and secondary diabetes.
  • Cardiovascular Risks: There is an elevated risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to the combined effects of the drugs and the body’s altered immune response (Axelrad et al., 2016; Rosenthal & Moore, 2015).

Conclusion

The patient’s symptoms are indicative of diverticulitis, exacerbated by a low-fiber diet. The genetic predisposition to colon cancer, as evidenced by the family history, highlights the importance of genetic factors in disease development. Immunosuppression, while necessary in some treatment protocols, poses significant risks to the body’s ability to fight infections and maintain overall health. Effective management of these conditions requires a thorough understanding of the underlying cellular processes and genetic influences.

References

Axelrad, J. E., Lichtiger, S., & Yajnik, V. (2016). Inflammatory bowel disease and cancer: The role of inflammation, immunosuppression, and cancer treatment. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 22(20), 4794-4801.

Feuerstein, J. D., & Falchuk, K. R. (2016). Diverticulosis and diverticulitis. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 91(8), 1094-1104.

American Cancer Society. (n.d.). Causes of Colorectal Cancer | Is Colon Cancer Hereditary?. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/colon-rectal-cancer/causes-risks-prevention/what-causes.html

Lockyer, S., Spiro, A., & Stanner, S. (2016). Dietary fibre and the prevention of chronic disease–should health professionals be doing more to raise awareness?. Nutrition Bulletin, 41(3), 214-231.

Rosenthal, M. D., & Moore, F. A. (2015). Persistent inflammatory, immunosuppressed, catabolic syndrome (PICS): A new phenotype of multiple organ failure. Journal of Advanced Nutritional and Human Metabolism, 1(1).

Detailed Assessment Instructions for the NURS 6501N Altered Physiology Case Study Analysis Assignment

 Week 2: Altered Physiology

With a place squarely in the spotlight for patients diagnosed with all manner of disease, APRNs must demonstrate not only support and compassion, but expertise to guide patients’ understanding of diagnoses and treatment plans.

This expertise goes beyond an understanding of disease and sciences, such as cellular pathophysiology. APRNs must become experts in their patients, understanding their medical backgrounds, pertinent characteristics, and other variables that can be factors in their diagnoses and treatments.

This week, you examine alterations in the immune system and the resultant disease processes. You consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, and the impact they have on altered physiology.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate cellular processes and alterations within cellular processes
  • Analyze alterations in the immune system that result in disease processes
  • Identify racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning
  • Evaluate the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology

Learning Resources

Required Readings

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 1: Cellular Biology; Summary Review
  • Chapter 2: Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology: Environmental Agents(pp. 46-61; begin again with Manifestations of Cellular Injury pp. 83-97); Summary Review
  • Chapter 3: The Cellular Environment: Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids, and Bases,
  • Chapter 4: Genes and Genetic Diseases (stop at Elements of formal genetics); Summary Review
  • Chapter 5: Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, and Common Diseases (stop at Genetics of common diseases); Summary Review
  • Chapter 7: Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing
  • Chapter 8: Adaptive Immunity (stop at Generation of clonal diversity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 9: Alterations in Immunity and Inflammation (stop at Deficiencies in immunity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 10: Infection (stop at Infectious parasites and protozoans); (start at HIV); Summary Review
  • Chapter 11: Stress and Disease (stop at Stress, illness & coping)Summary Review
  • Chapter 12: Cancer Biology (stop at Resistance to destruction); Summary Review
  • Chapter 13: Cancer Epidemiology (stop at Environmental-Lifestyle factors); Summary Review

Note: You previously read these chapters in Week 1 and you are encouraged to review once again for this week.

Justiz-Vaillant, A. A., & Zito, P. M. (2019). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions. In StatPearls. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513315/

Credit Line: Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf. (2019, June 18). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513315/. Used with permission of Stat Pearls.
Note: This article was presented in the Week 1 resources. If you read it previously you are encouraged to review it this week.

Required Media

Immunity and Inflammation

Khan Academy (2010, February 24). Inflammatory response | Human anatomy and physiology  | Health & medicine [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXSuEIMrPQk

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 14 minutes.

Soo, P. (2018, July 28). Pathophysiology Ch 10 alterations in immune function [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jz0wx1-jTds

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 37 minutes.

Acid-Base Balance #1

MedCram. (2012, April 28). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wMEMhvrQxE

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.

Acid-Base Balance #2

MedCram. (2012, April 29). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly | 2 of 8 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GmEeKVTpOKI

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

Hyponatremia

MedCram. (2017, December 23). Hyponatremia explained clearly [LK1] (remastered) – Electrolyte imbalances [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bLajK5Vy55M

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 3, 7, and 8 that relate to alterations in immunity, hyponatremia, and acid/base balance.

Note: To access the online resources included with the text, you need to complete the FREE online registration that is located at https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student

To Register to View the Content

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student
  2. Enter the name of the textbook, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children, or ISBN 9780323654395 (name of text without the edition number) in the Search textbox.
  3. Complete the registration process.

To View the Content for This Text

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/
  2. Click on Student Site.
  3. Type in your username and password.
  4. Click on the Login button.
  5. Click on the plus sign icon for Resources on the left side of the screen.
  6. Click on the name of the textbook for this course.
  7. Expand the menu on the left to locate all the chapters.
  8. Navigate to the desired content (checklists, videos, animations, etc.).

Note: Clicking on the URLs in the APA citations for the Resources from the textbook will not link directly to the desired online content. Use the online menu to navigate to the desired content.

Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

An understanding of cells and cell behavior is a critically important component of disease diagnosis and treatment. But some diseases can be complex in nature, with a variety of factors and circumstances impacting their emergence and severity.

Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond isolated cell behavior. Genes, the environments in which cell processes operate, the impact of patient characteristics, and racial and ethnic variables all can have an important impact.

An understanding of the signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs, this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify cell, gene, and/or process elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

The Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis in which you:

  • Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.
  • Identify the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.
  • Explain the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.

By Day 7 of Week 2

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “M1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Module 1 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Module 1 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “M1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Module 1 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Module 1 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2

To participate in this Assignment:

Module 1 Assignment

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