New Technologies in Nursing

New Technologies in Nursing

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Experience of Disorder Symptoms Nursing Research Paper

Experience of Disorder Symptoms

The study was approved by an Institutional Review Board as it is a requirement of the journal where it was published. Notably, the article is peer-reviewed. Though it is not explicitly stated that the informed consent was obtained from subjects, participants were volunteers and completed questionnaires where ethical issues were mentioned. There is no explicit information on anonymity or confidentiality. Vulnerable subjects (children under 12) took part in the study but their parents helped them to complete questionnaires.

In fact, it is possible to note that most part of the participants can be regarded as vulnerable as they are diagnosed with such mental disorders as autism. It does not appear that subjects might have been forced to participate in the research. Since new shorter assessment measures have been developed, the benefits outweigh the risks associated with the study.

Thus, healthcare professionals will be able to get the necessary information quicker and people completing questions will be more attentive and diligent as they will provide more comprehensive data. Since the subjects were volunteers and completed certain questionnaires, it is likely that they had the opportunity to contact the researchers. Nonetheless, there is no such information in the article in question. It is unlikely that each participant was told about the way they could get the results of the research. However, this information is not given explicitly in the article.

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The research area is clear as the introduction part of the article contains some information on the need for a proper assessment of autism. It is clear that existing assessment tools are effective but time-consuming and this is associated with the frustration of patients and their close ones. The research question is not highlighted but there is a purpose statement as Allison, Auyeung, and Baron-Cohen (2012, p. 202) note that the study is aimed at identifying “10 items on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)” and “the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT)”.

The article contains sufficient information on the population and variables including age and DSM-IV criteria. It is possible to note that the study was totally quantitative as quantitative research methods (the number of people and a shortlist of questions were central to the research, not their evaluations or opinions) were used and these methods were described in detail in the Methods section of the article. Clearly, empirical data were gathered on the topic of interest as people with certain disorders completed questionnaires on the symptoms they or their children experience, and the most informative criteria were extracted.

It seems that the study was ethical as participants were volunteers who eagerly participated in the study. Importantly, the study’s feasibility is apparent as a large number of participants completed the questionnaires and a shorter set of criteria could be developed on the basis of this research. The present study is very important for nursing as effective and quick assessment of the symptoms can help healthcare professionals including nurses to develop proper treatment.

The article does not have a separate section for the literature review but there is a comprehensive review in the introduction and discussion sections. The literature review is concise as major issues concerning symptoms assessment are highlighted as well as researchers’ ideas on the matter. Thus, it is possible to state that the review flows logically from the purpose of the study which is aimed at defining major criteria for an efficient assessment. It is clear that the existing assessment used by psychologists is not very effective as it requires a significant amount of time.

According to many researchers referred to in the article, people often feel frustrated and reluctant to invest a lot of time to complete questionnaires. Therefore, it becomes clear that there is a need for a shorter questionnaire. All the sources are relevant as they concentrate on autisms and their assessment. The vast majority of the sources are peer-reviewed and have been critically appraised. At that, there are both classical and recent sources though sources of the 2010s prevail. The authors do not include direct quotes.

Allison et al. (2012) refer to supporting theory and research mainly without reference to an opposing theory. As seen from the sources’ titles, both primary and secondary sources are used though primary sources prevail. These sources report on the results of certain experiments and studies. All the sources cited in the article are on the reference list. The reference is free from citation errors and seems very sophisticated.

The framework is clearly defined as Allison et al. (2012) state that assessment criteria have been identified and it is important to reduce the number of the criteria to make the assessment more effective and rapid. The framework is loosely connected with nursing theory but is tied to diagnosis. Obviously, nurses can also benefit from the use of the developed set of criteria which enables people to assess autism symptoms within a shorter period of time. The framework seems appropriate for the present study as it aims at shortening the list of assessment criteria which are quite numerous and can be inconsistent or superfluous.

The concepts are clearly defined as the researchers try to come up with an effective assessment tool based on existing sets of criteria. However, the relationships among concepts are not clearly presented. The article does not contain a propositional statement or operational definitions. The researchers relate the study to the framework used as they claim it is possible to single out the ten most efficient criteria. Notably, the findings provide support for the study framework.

Notably, the article does not contain a set of hypotheses but the authors note that the aim at providing only “the first step in developing the measures” of clinical assessment and identifying which 10 “items from each of the adult AQ, adolescent AQ, child AQ, and Q-CHAT” could be as effective as “the full-length versions of these instruments” (Allison et al, 2012, p. 204).

Even though there is no clearly defined hypothesis, it is apparent that the goal of the study can be achieved through the analysis of people’s questionnaires. Clearly, it is possible to single out the most relevant questions as the existing measurement tools often have similar questions. At that, researchers make a prediction that it is possible to single out the 10 most relevant questions to create a shorter and more effective questionnaire. The authors provide their efficient questionnaire at the end of the article.

The design of the study is described in the Methods section of the article. The design is appropriate as it enables the researchers to achieve the goal of the study and identify 10 universal criteria to be used during the assessment of symptoms. The researchers estimated the effectiveness of each criterion and identified the 10 most relevant questions. The study did not use an experimental design as only data were collected and evaluated. As has been mentioned above, the study is the first step in developing an efficient measurement and there is no need for an experimental approach.

However, the next step will require such an approach as it is necessary to check whether the developed set of criteria is effective and accurate. It is necessary to note that the assignment of subjects was clearly described in the methods section. The researchers revealed major characteristics of participants who took part in the study. The major focus was made on age and symptoms as well as diagnosis.

At that, the design does not allow (and it is not relevant) to draw a cause-and-effect relationship between the variables as the study focuses on the identification of the 10 most efficient questions which do not depend on age or symptoms. To control extraneous variables, the researchers included only adults, adolescents, and children who “did not report any neurodevelopmental diagnosis” (Allison et al, 2012, p. 206).

A quantitative research method is the most appropriate for the present study as researchers are not interested in the evaluation or opinion of people. The study is concerned with identifying the most efficient criteria used by psychologists. Admittedly, it was important to compare questionnaires of participants to be able to define these criteria. The study focuses on the objective nature of human experience as the participants report on symptoms they are experiencing (not their ideas on subjects).

No significant qualitative approach was described as this type of research would be irrelevant to the study. The study finding will have a certain significance for nursing as nurses will have a shorter and more effective list of criteria for potential clients. Nurses will also be able to access the questionnaires where they will see major symptoms. However, physicians will benefit more as the study will help in diagnosis more. The researchers describe how participants were selected in detail in the methods section. It is not explicitly stated in the article how the sample size was determined.

More than 1,000 participants were included in the research. The data collection and recording are presented in detail, which makes the study concise and relevant. It is clear that to avoid bias all people whose characteristics complied with the requirements of the study were included irrespective of gender, age, race, socioeconomic status, and so on. Notably, the data analysis method is consistent with the purpose of the research as the most efficient questions could be defined through analysis of answers to questionnaires used by psychologists.

The results of the study are clearly presented in the results and discussion sections. More so, the results are also presented in tables and this makes them easier to comprehend. As for limitations, the researchers note that people who have already obtained diagnoses participated in the study. The authors also state that the other limitation is that people with different types of diagnoses took part in the study. The researchers also provide suggestions for further research. Allison et al. (2012) claim that it is necessary to use the developed set of criteria with people whose symptoms have not been assessed.

Reference List

Allison, C., Auyeung, B., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2012). Toward brief “red flags” for autism screening: The short autism spectrum quotient and the short quantitative checklist in 1,000 cases and 3,000 controls. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry51(2), 202-212.

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Concept Analysis Patient Advocacy Nursing Paper

Concept Analysis Patient Advocacy

The purpose of this concept analysis is to identify, focus, and refine how patient advocacy is perceived by professional nurses in the nursing community.   This paper will follow the Walker and Advant (2011) method of concept analysis to identify the concept of patient advocacy from existing literature with the aim to analyze and provide clarity and direction for the enhancement of advocacy in nursing.   Further, steps will include the process of identifying attributes of the concept, describing all model cases selected, identifying antecedents and consequences regarding the concept, and lastly, identifying examples of empirical referents of the concept (Walker & Avant, 2011).

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Identification of Concept and Aim of Analysis

Patients often have inadequate knowledge of illness and medicine, yet they desire more control over their personal healthcare.   In many healthcare settings, patient care is unpredictable and patients’ right to self-determination and quality of life has a tendency to be ignored (Bu & Jezewski, 2006).   Advocacy is understood as the act of pleading for, supporting, or recommending (Webster’s Online Dictionary, n.d.).   Moreover, the concept most often noted in the literature as a component of nursing advocacy involves acting on behalf of patients, including nurses’ activities of speaking, fighting, and standing up for their patients (Hanks, 2007).

Nurses are in a unique position to support their patient’s interests in the re-establishment of health and well-being through patient advocacy. However, due to the limited number of quantitative empirical studies of patient advocacy in nursing, the definition of patient advocacy is not consistent, and many nurses have a limited view of what patient advocacy is and how to perform the challenging task of protecting and supporting patient’s rights. (Bu & Jezewski, 2006).   The aim of this analysis is to clarify, define, and refine the concept of patient advocacy in order to expand understanding of this concept in nursing practice.

Defining Attributes

According to much of the literature, defining attributes of patient advocacy involves a series of specific actions by nurses to protect, represent, and safeguard the patients’ rights, best interests, and values within the healthcare system (Bu & Jezewski, 2006).   As well, safeguarding patients’ autonomy, acting on behalf of patients, and defending social justice in the delivery of health care are all core attributes of patient-care advocacy (Bu & Jezewski, 2006).   The title of patient supporter and patient representative is also used frequently in the research literature to describe the role of the nurse advocate (Hank, 2007).   These attributes place patients at the center of the healthcare system, emphasizing patients’ legal rights and well-being, and nurses’ humanity, kindness, and fairness in the delivery of health care (Bu & Jezewski, 2006).

Cases of Patient Advocacy

Cases of patient advocacy can be examples of several main factors that define and challenge the attributes that facilitate or hinder nurses as patient advocates.   A model case is defined as “an example of the use of the concept that demonstrates all the defining attributes of the concept” (Walker & Avant, 2011, p. 163).   In addition to the model case exemplar, the attributes of patient advocacy will be defined and challenged through case examples of borderline, related, and contrary cases.

Model Case

An example of a model case for patient advocacy involves a Registered Nurse who has been working as the charge nurse of a busy Emergency Department for 15 years.   P.B. has just come on shift when an air emergency vehicle lands on the helipad with a 22-year-old, male, trauma patient.   The paramedic reports that the patient was involved in a two-vehicle head-on collision, the patient was ejected from the vehicle, and there is a possibility of a spinal cord injury.   Immediately, the trauma team attends to any life-threatening injuries, while P.B. quietly and efficiently attends to the patient’s emotional and safety needs.   She quickly determines that the patient would like his mother contacted

only, that he would like to know the extent of his injuries, and that he suffering a considerable amount of pain.   After the patient’s primary care is complete, P.B. explains spinal shock to the patient, allows the previously-contacted mother to enter the Emergency Department, and carefully reviews the plan of care with both the patient and the mother.   She then offers to contact further family as needed and presents herself available for any further questions.   Further, after administering ordered pain medications, P.B. is very astute with timed, follow-up, assessments regarding effective pain control.

The above nurse demonstrates the core attributes necessary when a nurse is successful in the role of a patient advocate.   The nurse acted as a patient protector from pain and fear, representing and safeguarding the patient’s rights and autonomy through contacting the appropriate family members, and addressing the patient’s pain with medication and personal reassessment of the patient’s pain control.   As well, the nurse showed kindness, fairness, and humility with the congruity of care by personally providing the patient and the patient’s family with compassion and education regarding the patient’s injury and treatment.

Borderline Case

An example of a borderline case regarding the role of a nurse as a patient-advocator would involve the same scenario, but slightly different reactions from the above charge nurse.

As the helicopter lands and the patient’s life-threatening injuries are attended to by the trauma team, P.B. offers to contact the family members of the patient.   The patient asks that only his mother be notified, that he is afraid, and that he is in tremendous pain.   P.B. quickly reassures the patient that she will contact his mother, that being afraid is natural, and that as soon as she is given the order, she will provide the patient pain medicine.   When the patient’s mother arrives in the Emergency Department, P.B. explains the nature of the patient’s injuries, assures the mother that her son is going to be fine, and then leaves the two alone to discuss their options for care.

The above example represents a borderline case due to the mid-range of appropriate reactions by the nurse attending to the needs of a patient.   The patient’s autonomy, privacy, and rights were safeguarded when the nurse contacted the appropriate family members.   However, the nurse did not demonstrate effective fairness when assuring the patient and the patient’s mother that everything would be fine with regard to the patient’s injuries.   Further, the nurse did not display kindness and compassion when leaving the patient and his mother alone without first determining that their educational and emotional needs were met.

Related Case

An example of a related case using the previous scenario involves a variance in the actions of the charge nurse. P.B has just begun her role as the charge nurse on the night shift in the Emergency Department.   One of the trauma nurses has called in sick, and she is now required to provide care as a nurse on the trauma team as well as fulfill the role of charge nurse.   Shortly after her shift begins, a 24-year-old, male, trauma victim arrives via air transport, and P.B. realizes that she will have to be the primary nurse on this patient’s case.   The patient is quickly stabilized, but a spinal cord injury with possible paralysis is soon diagnosed by the trauma physician.   The patient is very frightened, in pain, and requests that P.B. phone his mother.   P.B. calmly assures the patient that she will contact his mother, administers ordered pain medication, and then assures the patient that she will return to check on him shortly.   However, due to P.B.’s charge nurse status, she is needed in another trauma case and the 24-year-old trauma victim is replaced by another trauma nurse.

This case appears to demonstrate the concept of patient advocacy.   However, when examined closely, the trauma patient may have felt that P.B. did not provide kindness, compassion, and congruity of care when failing to return to his bedside after stating that she would. Unknown to the patient, P.B.’s responsibilities as a charge nurse kept her busy for the rest of the shift, and in fact, P.B. explained the transfer of nursing care to the patient’s mother.   However, the patient’s mother left the department while the patient was asleep, and no explanation was ever made to effectively relieve the patient’s feeling of desertion.   This exemplar may simply be a demonstration of a nurse who is very busy with patient care rather than the absence of patient advocacy.

Contrary Case

Using the scenario provided above, the contrary case example involves P.B. as she has just arrived to work as the Emergency Department charge nurse for the evening shift.   A trauma victim has been transported into the emergency bay, and he is suffering paralysis due to a spinal cord injury.   The victim is a 24-year-old male, who appears extremely frightened, and is in pain.   As the charge nurse, P.B. does not typically have individual patients assigned to her, and this is no exception.   However, the nurse assigned to the patient asks P.B. to contact the patient’s mother and to stay with the patient until his anxiety and pain have lessened.   P.B. calls the number provided on the patient’s chart and asks the patient’s father to immediately come to the Emergency Department, relaying that he should contact the victim’s mother as well.   Following the phone call, P.B. stays with the patient for a short time, but does not provide any comfort measures; instead, P.B. frequently leaves the patient’s bedside, avoids speaking with the patient, and denies any knowledge of his condition when asked for updates by the patient.

The above nurse does not demonstrate the core attributes identified when a nurse is successful in the role of patient advocate.   The nurse fails to act as a patient protector from fear or to represent and safeguard the patient’s rights and autonomy through contacting the inappropriate family member.   Further, the nurse does not attempt to exude kindness, humanity, or supporter-of-patient’s needs by frequently leaving his bedside and failing to offer reassurance or education regarding the patient’s injuries.   This is clearly not the concept of a patient advocate role.

Identification of Antecedents

Antecedents are those incidents or events in place prior to the occurrence of the concept being researched (Walker & Avant, 2011).   Antecedents of patient advocacy occur at all levels of the healthcare system and appeal for nurses to advocate for patients.   Advocacy for patients stems from a need to protect a vulnerable population that loses the power to represent or defend itself (Hank, 2007).   Vulnerable patients are the most frequently mentioned situation demanding nurses’ advocacy actions (Bu & Jezewski, 2006).   Populations of vulnerable people include groups or individuals who cannot fully embody and defend their own rights, needs, welfares, and wishes, are unable to make suitable choices, or are unable to carry out their choices (Bu & Jezewski, 2006).

Identification of Consequences

The consequences of patient advocacy are a result of nurses’ patient advocacy and can be either positive or negative (Bu & Jezewski, 2006).   Successful patient advocacy actions produce positive consequences through the protection of patients’ rights, needs, welfares, and wishes (Bu & Jezewski, 2006).   The nursing profession may also have positive consequences as a result of patient advocacy through increases in professional fulfillment, self-confidence, and self-respect through the preservation of personal integrity and moral principles (Bu & Jezewski, 2006).   Negative consequences can occur when nurses advocate for patients and risks are reported as the advocator being insubordinate; many patient advocators suffer the loss of reputation, support system, and self-esteem (Bu & Jezewski, 2006).

Identification of Examples of Empirical Referent

Empirical referents are classes or categories of actual phenomena demonstrating the occurrence of the concept, and in many cases, the defining attributes and empirical referents will be the same (Walker & Avant, 2011).   The concept of patient advocacy, or specific patient advocacy action, is classified under the core attributes listed above, and the empirical referents of this concept analysis are the same.   The defining attributes include safeguarding, protecting, representing patients’ rights, best interests, and values within the healthcare system (Bu & Jezewski, 2006).   Safeguarding patients’ autonomy, acting on behalf of patients, and defending social justice in the delivery of health care are also listed as defining attributes of patient advocacy (Bu & Jezewski, 2006).   Patient supporters and patient representatives are also included in this analysis to be attributed to the role of nurse patient-advocate (Hank, 2007).

In conclusion, patient advocacy is an essential part of the professional nursing practice. If the need for advocacy is not appropriately acknowledged and applied, effective healthcare will not be received.   The concept analysis of this paper provided clarity, definition, and refinement of the concept of patient advocacy and promotes advocating of patients as a necessary step in the advancement intended for nurses’ professional practice.

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Health Advocacy in Nursing Sample Paper

Health Advocacy in Nursing

Advocacy is a process of supporting people who are vulnerable in society and are unable to express their views and opinions, passing on important information to them to the appropriate authorities and accessing services that they require, exploring their choices and rights, defending and promoting their rights and responsibilities  (Teasdale, 1999).

An advocate is, therefore, someone who provides support to those who are vulnerable or less able to speak for themselves or access services that they require. For example, a service user who is unable to attend a meeting/interview alone or speak for him/herself due to any reason may ask someone to act as an advocate. Health professionals have a duty of care to advocate for service users that they work with and their role is to ensure that the service users’  voices are heard by representing their wishes and views and making sure that they have access to services that will meet their needs (Bateman and Bateman, 2000).

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However, these health professionals may be reluctant to do so if they consider that what the service user asks them to do is not in his/her best interest. For health workers to adequately advocate on behalf of their service users, they must listen to them and ensure that they understand the needs of the service user. As seen in the first scenario in the video, when a patient was to be supported to get out of bed, it was obvious that health staff did not allow him to express his wishes because they pounced on him and started to open the window without asking if he would like his window opened.

Nurses are seen as advocates of patients in their care. They are to listen to patients because they constantly interact with them, making it easy for patients to trust them and confide in them  (Loue, Lloyd, and O’Shea, 2003).

In scenario 1 in the video, the nurses completely ignored the patient in their care whilst telling them that he needed his glasses. He was considered as not in existence in spite of asking for his glasses repeatedly (Grogan and Gusmano, 2007) pointed out that nurses are the first health care professionals to recognize situations that are not in the best interest of patients and report these situations to those that can affect change.

Nurses promote health and care for the disabled, the ill, and the dying people placed under their care and prevent illnesses but these attributes were lacking in the health professionals that cared for the patient in scenario 1. It was clear that he got frustrated that he lost his appetite. He probably would be thinking if he was in the wrong place and with the wrong people. Nurses are advocates for the promotion of a safe environment, health education, research participation in shaping health policy as well as systems and patient management (Loue, Lloyd, and O’Shea, 2003).

Nurses spot and take action or report issues such as questionable drug orders to the doctors or report an incompetent health care provider to a supervisor, thus advocating for the right of the patient (Gordon et al., n.d.).

According to nurses code of practice, nurses are required to advocate on behalf of patients by reporting cases of patient abuse, including known or suspected cases of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse because they constitute unprofessional conduct and form a basis for disciplinary action against the culprit (Lustig, 2012). Not listening to patients and providing care based on their needs as seen in the scenario is unprofessional and also abusive. for example, a service user who asked for his/her medication from a health provider and he/she is refused has been abused. Nurses are therefore required to report cases of abuse to protect the rights of their patients (Keefe and Jurkowski, 2013).

Nursing advocacy plays an important role in observing the safety of patients when they make contact with the health care system particularly when they are too ill to be their own advocate or when undergoing surgery or anesthesia (Lustig, 2012). Bateman and Bateman (2000) highlights that during surgery, the nurse must serve as the patient’s advocate, speak for the patient to protect the patient’s wishes throughout the surgery. Nurses, therefore, serve as patient advocates by advocating improved health care practices that relate to control of infections as well as access to care. Bateman and Bateman (2000) note that each encounter that the nurse has with the nurse presents an opportunity for the nurse to serve as the advocate for the patient.

Good communication between service users and staff is very important. AsApker (2013) suggestsit is important that health and care workers develop good communication skills for them to have effective communication with service users and explain their treatment needs to them. More so, health and care workers must learn professional communication skills and know-how to apply them to create a better care environment (Collins, 2009). Health workers must listen to service users whilst expressing their views and needs, and also pass on important information to them, to the appropriate authorities, and for them to access services that they require through advocacy (Luckmann and Nobles, 2000). While advocating for service users, health workers need to explore their choices, defend and promote their rights and responsibilities(Loue, Lloyd, and O’Shea, 2003).

Health workers such as nurses are highly skilled and well-trained professionals who take care of the sick. They educate patients, their families, and the communities on wellness and healthy living. Bateman and Bateman (2000) suggest that a nurse is full of compassion for clients and human beings in general. They possess good communication and listening skills but in the video in scenario 1, this appeared not to be so as the service user was completely ignored. Nurses are also required to report the progress of their patients to the doctors and their loved ones. They are to keep patients’ records, chart all patient’s observations, do the teaching procedures, and document conversations and discussions with their patients. The nature and duties of nurses portray them as health care professionals that are closest to patients and their families. They are equipped with the task of advocating for the rights of patients within health care institutions (Grogan and Gusmano, 2007). These are what the nurses in the video should be to the service user and not the other way round.

In communicating with the service user, the nurses need to be able to use a variety of strategies to ensure that professional practice meets the health and care needs of the service user and facilitates a positive working relationship with him. Undoubtedly, Lustig (2012) suggests that there are different approaches to communication and it is important that the individual health professional channels his or her use of these approaches to the individual needs of the patient.

Therefore a good working knowledge of cognitive, humanistic, behavioral, social, and psychoanalytical is vital. Lustig (2012)states that humanistic theory is applicable in situations where people are involved in aspects of self-actualization, self-conception, self-esteem, honor, and dignity. This approach reflects on the viewpoint that every human being has the potential to be good, contribute positively, enjoy life, and be a loving and lovable member of society.

Thus, in the health and care sector, nurses, doctors, home care managers, including social workers as Kerson and McCoyd (2010) comment, are offered adequate training in order to care adequately for service users in the most humanistic manner by practicing methods of communication relevant to the individual or to the appropriate situations

Giving voices to service users in situations where they are unable or hesitant to speak their minds or when they decided to give their full trust to health practitioners such as nurses, is an advocacy role of nurses to their patients. Grogan and Gusmano (2007) note that in such circumstances, nurses should encourage patients to voice their wishes and opinions and provide care that focuses on meeting their specific wishes.

Teasdale (1999)states that patient advocacy guarantees safety and protection of patients from preventable injury as patients and their family members depend on health workers such as nurses to detect and address potential safety issues. Providing the service user with his glasses to enhance his sight to function will guarantee his safety. Nurses also act as advocates for family members of patients.

Listening to a service user in scenario one in the video and meeting his needs such as offering him his glasses for clear vision, communicating with him by telling him what they have come into his room to do and asking him about his health and wellbeing, and not discussing about their personal issues will enable the service user to have trust, confidence, feel safe and establish a good working relationship with the nurses caring for him.


  • Apker, J. (2013). Communication in Health Organizations. Hoboken: Wiley.
  • Bateman, N. and Bateman, N. (2000). Advocacy skills for health and social care professionals. London: J. Kingsley.
  • Collins, S. (2009). Effective communication. London: Jessica Kingsley.
  • Gordon, S., Feldman, D., Leonard, M. and Jackson, A. (n.d.). Collaborative caring.
  • Grogan, C. and Gusmano, M. (2007). Healthy voices, unhealthy silence. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
  • Improving access to oral health care for vulnerable and underserved populations. (2011). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
  • Keefe, R. and Jurkowski, E. (2013). Handbook for public health social work. New York: Springer Pub.
  • Kerson, T. and McCoyd, J. (2010). Social work in health settings. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
  • Loue, S., Lloyd, L. and O’Shea, D. (2003). Community health advocacy. New York: Kluwer Academic.
  • Luckmann, J. and Nobles, S. (2000). Transcultural communication in health care. Albany, NY: Delmar.
  • Lustig, S. (2012). Advocacy strategies for health and mental health professionals. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
  • Teasdale, K. (1999). Advocacy in health care. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science.

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Wage Analysis for Nurses Case Study

Wage Analysis for Nurses Case Study

Abstract: Wage Analysis for Nurses Case Study

The main objective of this study was to observe the potential differences wages that various nurses earn, using their average age and average wage scale (AAWS), in both male and female nurses as well as in dissimilar management and nursing levels in either offices or hospitals. In their research these researchers submitted two hypotheses. The first hypothesis indicates that male and female nurses usually respond independently and differently to the SAS in general headship behavior. On the other hand, the second hypothesis suggests that there are a lot of differences in the AAWS depending on the level of nursing which is either in offices or hospitals.

Introduction and Purpose Statement of Nursing Wages Paper

The main focus of this research paper is to come up with the relationship analysis of how all these variables and more specifically how the average wage of the nurses vary or relate with the average age of nurses both in the offices and those in the offices. More specifically, the paper aims at expounding on the how the experience of the nurses would affect the average wage of each of the nurses and try to substantiate the validity of the argument that as nurses get more experience the more their average wage also increases especially in the event that the nurses are in the hospitals and that they are of the feminine gender. The use of SAS and SPSS in will the key tools of analysis that would be utilized in this study especially the use of SAS though it is found out not to be the social science tool of statistical analysis.

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Literature Review and Hypothesis Development of Nursing Wages

The sample was non-random, comprising 172 nurses that were identified on a willingness method.  Within the sample, 118 (0.73) of the nurses were male, while 44 (0.27) were female.  With regard to nursing level, 25 (0.15) were experienced nurses, 99 (0.61) office nurses, and 38 (0.24) at the college level.   While this is a good sample size, the problem lies with the distribution of the sample.  The sample number for experienced nurses, in particular, is rather low.  A larger sample with regard to all categories would have aided in the data analysis, particularly when looking for possible interactions between gender and nursing level.

The sample was not random, including 152 nurses that were picked on a volunteer method.  Among the sample, 191(0.73) of the nurses were female, while 44 (0.27) were male.  With consideration to nursing level, 25 (0.15) were experienced nurses, 99 (0.61) office, and 38 (0.24) at the college level.   While it is a a better sample number, the problem lies with the distribution of the sample.  The sample size for experienced nurses, in particular, is rather low.  A bigger sample with refers to all kinds would have assisted in analyzing data, specifically when finding for likely relationships between sex and nursing level.  The sample was nonrandom, including 162 nurses that were chosen on a volunteer basis.  Within the sample, 118 (0.73) of the nurses were male, while 44 (0.27) were female.  With regard to nursing level, 25 (0.15) were experienced nurses, 99 (0.61) office nurses, and 28 (0.24) at the experienced level.   While this is an excellent sample size, the issue lies with the distribution formula of the sample.  The sample number for experienced nurses, in its entirety, is relatively low.  A bigger sample with relationship to all kinds would have helped in the data analysis, more exactly when searching for likely interactions between sex type and nursing level.

Literature Review: Changing the Hospital’s Model

The researcher indicates that the measures were provided in a number of settings.  This could give a challenge to the external validity in that factors might not have been exhaustively focused on finishing the scale, but in the contrary on coordinating practice, finishing paperwork, etc. Nursing experience would adversely affect the responses of the correspondents, though this was considered in the research.  The gender of the nurses may be a contributing factor to the nurses’ responses and level of productivity.  It is not unthinkable to propose that nurses of male gender, specifically at the experienced and office and hospital levels, will demonstrate a lot of social aid than those of male nurses. The type or specialty of the nursing field could also be very paramount.  Certain nursing styles are more applicable for individual nursing activities.

The socioeconomics and population of the hospitals itself could play a factor.  Certain hospitals have better facilities and programs in a particular type of nurses.  In addition, at the office level, nurses are occasionally asked/forced to work with a program they have no knowledge of or desire to do due to staffing shortages.  This could dramatically influence a nurse’s response to the scale questions. Perhaps the attitude of the nurse could be different than that of a nurse who has recently won a state title.

Data and Summary Statistics: Wage Analysis for Nurses Case Study

A SAS for analyzing female and male nurses with regard to average wages and their average wages.  This is not in tandem with the type of data collected.  The SPSS used a Likert scale (ordinal), yet SAS would be appropriately applicable for normally distributed, quantitative data.  The analysis illustrated there were no significant differences between office and hospital nurses in overall average wage earnings. When the six wage determinants were examined separately, there was a significant difference in wage between males and females.  In general, females earned much higher than did the male nurses.

A SAS is commonly used in the various levels of nursing (experienced, office, and hospital nurses) with relation to nurses’ productivity and wage in general.  There were key differences between the three levels.  When further broken down the several factors and studying them individually, an SAS were used to analyze the datasets.  Moreover, because the data for the SAS is raw and ordinal, a SAS is not the only good analysis tool.

Table 1: Summary and Univariate Tests, Wage Analysis for Nurses Case Study


Scores are based on a five-point Likert scale where 5 extreme importance and 1 no importance. Table 1, Panel B provides means and medians for the Incentive Index and each of its components stratified by hospitals in the industry and non-hospitals subsamples, and also by high- and low-profitability subsamples. Means and medians are similar to each other. Overall, the Incentive Index is significantly larger for the internet service providing hospitals than for non-hospitals based both on a t-test and a Mann-Whitney test, suggesting that hospital managers in hospitals are subject to greater production incentives on the use of hospitals than in non-hospitals. Looking at the separate incentive components, as expected, hospitals consider inventory turns and scrap/waste to be significantly more important in evaluating their service system than non-hospitals.9 More surprisingly, the four other incentive component differences are insignificant, but this may be due to the difficulty of measuring such variables as equipment utilization, labor utilization, and quality when compared with inventory turns and scrap/waste.

Table 2: Implementing model in the hospital and by High/Low wage/average wage



Empirical Results: Wage Analysis for Nurses Case Study

In view of the fact that average wages and their averages  of their ages as measured by average wages made by most of the nurses that were surveyed, the age margin, and total productivity level  qualitatively similar results, we provide tables for average wages only. In addition, we show results for the average age Index measurement measures because the latter metric yields results that are at variance somewhat with those of average wages and the other wage measures. Using ordinary least squares (OLS), hospital average wages normalized by sales revenue is regressed on the Index, the Incentive Index, and on a number of control variables. If productivity is related to actions (conditioned on incentives), then the coefficient on the Index will be positive and significant. If wage is related to incentives (conditioned on actions), then the coefficient on the Incentive Index will be positive and significant.

Table 2, Panel A shows results for the case where the regression does not include an interaction term between the two indices. We further test H1 in Panel B of Table 2 by incorporating an interaction term between the Incentive Index and the Index. To mitigate the issue of multicollinearity in the presence of interaction terms and to enhance interpretability of the regression, we de-mean all non-dummy regressors (Aiken and West 1991) in the regressions that follow.

The regression in Table 2, Panel A yields a statistically significant F-statistic (F _ 37.65, p _ .000) with an adjusted R3 of 73 percent. The Index is positive and significant (t _ 3.41, p _ .001), indicating that hospital wage is positively associated with ‘‘hospital Competitiveness.’’ The Incentive Index is not significant (t _ 0.58, p _ .567), indicating that hospital wage is independent of hospital managers’ incentives, a result that is not supportive of H1a.13 Consistent with H3, the experience variable is positive and highly significant (p _ .000), indicating that hospitals that have more experience with are more profitable. We further find that hospitals that belong to hospitals that are international in scope are significantly more profitable (t _ 3.54, p _ .001). Also, hospitals for which adoption require the hospital to increase financing are less productive, but the coefficient is only marginally significant at the one-tailed level (t _ _1.41, p _ .166). Finally, automotive parts hospitals are significantly less productive  than worker in the  hospitals (t _ _4.43, p _ .000). The Table 3, Panel B regression incorporates an interaction term between the Index and the Incentive Index but is otherwise identical to Panel A. The interaction term control

Wage Analysis for Nurses Case Study


Description of Data Used: Wage Analysis for Nurses Case Study

Mean: This is the average value that exists in a set of data. It is arrived at by diving the sum of the data by the number of variables that exist in the database and gives the average of the case of the above articles under analysis, their mean vary with some mislead by the skewed of distribution while other have either positively skewed among those articles that have higher mean. Those with small mean have negatively skewed to the left in the distribution. Foster, J., E. Barkus & C. Yavorsky (2006) with a mean of 64.872 is seen as the most positively skewed in its distribution since it’s has the largest in its mean while Jamber, E. A., & Zhang, J .J. (1997) with a mean of 10.341 is seen as the most negatively skewed in its distribution as is seen as the smallest its mean among the other articles. The other articles under study are seen arranged with the one with the largest mean being most positively skewed while with fairly small mean been negatively skewed.

Standard Deviation: This is calculated the same way as the mean of the dataset. The standard deviation of any data dataset helps to measure the data variability and is determined by having the standard deviation of the sample of the entire dataset taken. This standard deviation will however be biased sine there exist outliers in the dataset which underestimate the population standard deviation. The highly skewed datasets are however normalized multiplying by the median of the population. In the above articles, the one with the largest standard deviation is the article with the largest mean and is the most positively skewed and is 0.12007 while the one the article with the smallest mean also has the most standard deviation of 0.0013 and is the most negatively skewed amongst the other article under study. The arrangement of the standard deviation of the six articles largely depends on their averages and arranged according to how small or big their averages are.

Coefficient of variance: Deviation score which measures how a point of any frequency distribution is below or above the mean for the whole dataset. In order to determine the extent at which the amount deviation from the average the datasets are, to get this, the mean of the deviation scores is determined. This is the variance of the mean. It is determined by averaging all the deviations. The article with the highest average of its deviation that is the variance is the Rogers, Vicki, (2005)   with variance of ± 0.875 while the lowest is the Lozano-Vivas, A. (2009) with a variance of ± 0.012. This means that the article with the largest variance means that its means varies within the greatest margin while the one with the smallest variance means its means varies within the smallest margin. The other articles khave their averages varied between the two.

Confidence Limit: This type of statics means that for every statistical treatment undertaken, there is always the general believe that you are never certain always as there are errors in computation of the variance statistical measures. In the case of these articles under study their confidence intervals vary with lowest registered being 68% while the highest is 99.7%.  The 68% one means that the sample fall between the ±1 SD while the largest one means that the sample actually lies between ±3 SD respectively. These are for articles Jamber, E. A., & Zhang, J .J. (1997) and Lozano-Vivas, A. (2009) respectively. The other articles have their confidence levels distributed between these two extreme values.

Propagation of Error: Any statics under study have an error which is measured according to its propagation. These errors are however standard that is the arrived from the standard deviations of the sampling distribution that the statistic is investigated. This propagation of error commonly known as the standard error is used in statistics as they reflect on the fluctuation that the statistics show. In the above analyzed articles, Jamber, E. A., & Zhang, J .J. (1997) and Foster, J., E. Barkus & C. Yavorsky (2006) have the lowest error of 1.0% while article Pryce, G. (1999) has the largest margin of error that is 2%.

Two-Stage Regression Analysis: Wage Analysis for Nurses Case Study

The following window was generated after the execution of the TSLS parameter which gives the estimates that are close to the true values of the output.  The outcome of the regression analysis is mainly meant to show how the article under study was analyzed.

outcome of the regression analysis, Wage Analysis for Nurses Case Study



This is the most likely window that sis produced after same process has been repeated severally with different value.

outcome of the regression analysis


Robustness Check on Nursing Wages Charts and Data

To make sure there is stability and of results in the results of this study, several robustness checks are cared out. The levels of significance is for instance not based on the Heckman standard error but on bootstrap and jackknife standard errors which still give the desired qualitative results for all the regression analysis carried out in the cause of this study.   Even in the cases where more than one hospital is owed by the same hospitals’ manager. This accounts for hospitals that have potentially correlated data. This however is not possible with their regressions re-estimated after the dropping has been made. The results in all the cases were however not affected by this procedure since the hospitals employs inventories that are material requirements planning in nature (MRP) which indicate that the benefits of the hospitals are ascribed to this model. There was however the dropping of some of the models that were initially used by the hospitals though it had no adverse effects on the hospitals results on the efficiency of the model.

Conclusion and Discussion: Wage Analysis for Nurses Case Study

There are several weaknesses that the study but three of these weaknesses are found to be the most pertinent and found out to have affected and greatly influenced the results of the study. The size of the sample is one of these weaknesses as the sample had to be gets smaller, the accuracy of the study also reduces hence need to deal with larger samples of the data in order to improve on the accuracy and acceptability of the findings of the study. A larger sample would also allow for an analysis of the endogeneity that is more robust. This is possible through the use of the parametric and non parametric techniques. This is however difficult has it as it is not easy to have data that is not proprietary in nature even if it means working with smaller samples.

To avoid the several errors that are common with measurement, the data which is cross-sectional in nature is desideratum in nature get care has to be taken to mitigate the error. Incorporating the wage data for the many hospitals and offices may give more room for a more insightful analysis of the endogeneity of counterfactuals through treatment effects that are associated with those estimated by the hospitals. This means that the turns yield as a result of this model is higher as shown by the empirical results of the model.


  1. Ahmed, N. U., E. A. Runc, and R. V. Montagno. 1991. A comparative study of U.S. Internet Service Providing hospitals at various stages of just-in-time implementation. International Journal of Technology Research 29: 787–802.
  2. Aiken, L. S., and S. G. West. 1991. Multiple Regressions. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing.
  3. Balakrishnan, R., T. J. Linsmeier, and M. Venkatachalam. 1996. Financial benefits from JIT adoption: Effects of customer concentration and cost structure. The Accounting Review 71: 183–205.
  4. Banker, R. D., G. Potter, and R. G. Schroeder. 1993. Reporting Telecommunication wages measures to workers: An empirical study. Journal of Management Accounting Research 5: 33–55. ,
  5.  S. Lee and G. Potter. 1996. A field study of the impact of a Technology-based incentive plan. Journal of Technology and Economics 21: 195–226.
  6. Roberts, Gary, (2005).  Instructional technology that’s hip high-tech.  Information Today.
  7. Retrieved December 2005, from ERIC.  Accession number: EJ720405
  8. Rogers, Vicki, (2005).  Some efficient and effective classroom designs that accommodate Technology for promoting learning.  School Design and Planning Laboratory University of Georgia.  Retrieved July 2005, from ERIC.  Accession Number: ED485299.


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