Theoretical Foundations of Nursing: Applying Psychosocial Theories Example
Assignment Title: Theoretical Foundations of Nursing: Applying Psychosocial Theories
Assignment Type: Essay
Assignment Length: 3 pages
Course Textbook: Theoretical Basis for Nursing 4th ed. ISBN: 9781451190311
Author: McEwen, Melanie & Wills, Evelyn M.
Assignment Instructions Overview/Description:
In this assignment, you will explore the practical application of psychosocial theories in the field of nursing. You will be presented with a hypothetical nursing case involving a 65-year-old woman who is being admitted for a mastectomy due to cancer. This patient expresses fear and depression during the nursing assessment, and her husband is also concerned about the outcome. Additionally, both the patient and her husband are overweight and have not undertaken any dietary changes that have been recommended.
You will address several critical questions related to this case:
- Analyze what concepts from various psychosocial theories could be used in planning her care.
- Analyze how her care might be changed if the woman were 25 years old.
- Describe how care would be adjusted if she were 45 years old.
- Explain how social psychology theories have been used in promoting breast cancer awareness.
- Describe how you might utilize a theory to develop a future health promotion program for this couple.
The Student’s Role:
As a student, your role in this assignment is to:
- Review the case scenario provided involving a 65-year-old woman admitted for a mastectomy due to cancer and her husband.
- Research and identify relevant psychosocial theories that can be applied to address the emotional and psychological aspects of nursing care in this scenario.
- Analyze how the nursing care plan would differ based on the patient’s age (25 years old vs. 45 years old) and apply appropriate psychosocial theories to each situation.
- Explore the use of social psychology theories in breast cancer awareness campaigns and explain their impact.
- Develop a hypothetical health promotion program for the overweight couple based on a chosen theory, outlining its key components and objectives.
Introduction and Overview of the Assignment
In this assignment, we will explore the application of psychosocial theories in the context of nursing care for a 65-year-old woman who is being admitted for a mastectomy due to cancer. She expresses fear and depression during the nursing assessment, and her husband is also concerned about the outcome. Additionally, both the patient and her husband are overweight and have not undertaken any dietary changes recommended to them. We will address the following questions in this analysis.
Analyze what concepts from the various theories could be used in planning her care.
To address the emotional distress of the 65-year-old woman, we can draw upon various psychosocial theories to inform her care plan. One relevant theory is Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Theory. According to Erikson, individuals in late adulthood (age 65 and beyond) face the psychosocial crisis of “Ego Integrity vs. Despair.” In this context, the nurse can help the patient find a sense of integrity by acknowledging her fears and concerns, providing emotional support, and fostering a sense of acceptance of her condition.
In addition, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs can be applied to address the patient’s emotional needs. The nurse should ensure that the patient’s physiological needs (e.g., pain management, comfort) are met, followed by her safety needs (e.g., infection prevention), and then move on to addressing her love and belongingness needs (e.g., emotional support from her husband and healthcare team).
Analyze how her care might be changed if the woman were 25 years old.
If the patient were 25 years old, her psychosocial needs and concerns would likely be different. At this age, individuals are typically in the midst of Erikson’s “Intimacy vs. Isolation” stage. Nursing care would involve addressing her fears and concerns about her diagnosis while also considering her life stage. Support groups and counseling may be more focused on issues related to relationships, body image, and fertility preservation.
Describe how care would be adjusted if she were 45 years old.
If the patient were 45 years old, she would be in Erikson’s “Generativity vs. Stagnation” stage. Nursing care would need to address her concerns not only about her health but also about her role in society and her legacy. The nurse may explore her aspirations, goals, and how she can continue to contribute to her family and community. Support may also include addressing midlife stressors and coping mechanisms.
Explain how social psychology theories have been used in promoting breast cancer awareness.
Social psychology theories, such as the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior, have been instrumental in promoting breast cancer awareness. These theories emphasize the role of perception, attitudes, and social influences in health-related behaviors. Breast cancer awareness campaigns often leverage these theories by addressing perceived susceptibility and severity, promoting positive attitudes toward breast health, and utilizing social norms to encourage breast self-exams and mammograms.
Describe how you might utilize a theory to develop a future health promotion program for this couple.
To develop a health promotion program for the overweight couple, we can apply the Social Cognitive Theory, which highlights the importance of self-efficacy and observational learning. The program can include elements such as:
- Self-efficacy building: Helping the couple develop confidence in their ability to make dietary changes through education, goal setting, and small achievable steps.
- Modeling: Providing real-life examples of individuals who successfully adopted healthier lifestyles to inspire the couple.
- Social support: Creating a supportive environment for the couple by involving them in group activities, peer support, or family-based interventions.
- Reinforcement: Offering incentives and rewards for reaching dietary goals to reinforce positive behaviors.
In conclusion, psychosocial theories play a crucial role in understanding and addressing the emotional and behavioral aspects of nursing care. Tailoring care plans to an individual’s age, life stage, and psychosocial needs is essential for providing effective and compassionate nursing care. Additionally, applying social psychology theories can enhance health promotion efforts and encourage positive health behaviors in patients and their families.
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