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NURS 6501N Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Paper Example

NURS 6501N Week 5: Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders AssignmentNURS 6501N Week 5: Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment

NURS 6501N Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Paper Assignment Brief

Course: NURS 6501N – Advanced Pathophysiology

Assignment Title: NURS 6501N Week 5: Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment

Assignment Instructions Overview

This assignment focuses on understanding the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders. Students will explore various common disorders within these categories, analyzing their causes, symptoms, and impacts on patients. The aim is to apply key terms and concepts to communicate effectively about these conditions.

Understanding Assignment Objectives

The primary objective is to enhance students’ comprehension of the pathophysiological processes underlying GI and hepatobiliary disorders across the lifespan. This involves examining the structure and function of relevant systems and understanding how alterations can lead to disease.

The Student’s Role

Students are expected to actively engage with the provided resources, including textbook chapters, academic articles, and multimedia content. They should critically analyze the material, apply theoretical concepts to practical scenarios, and demonstrate their knowledge through a series of essay-type questions in the Knowledge Check.

Competencies Measured

This assignment measures students’ abilities to:

  • Analyze and explain the pathophysiology of GI and hepatobiliary disorders.
  • Apply theoretical knowledge to real-world clinical situations.
  • Communicate complex medical concepts in a clear and concise manner.
  • Demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of how these disorders impact patients’ lives.

You Can Also Check Other Related Assessments for the NURS 6501N – Advanced Pathophysiology Course:

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NURS 6501N Week 2 Altered Physiology Assignment: Case Study Analysis Example

NURS 6501N Week 4 Case Study Analysis Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Week 8: Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Case Study Analysis Assignment Example

NURS 6501 Week 10 Assignment – Case study, STDs and Infertility Assignment Example

NURS 6501N Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Paper Example

Scenario 1: Peptic Ulcer Disease

Question 1:

The patient has been using ibuprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which is a significant cause of peptic ulcers. Additionally, smoking tobacco, consuming excessive caffeine, drinking alcohol, and psychological stress are contributing factors.

Question 2:

Ibuprofen contributes to peptic ulcer development by inhibiting the stomach’s ability to protect itself from gastric acid, reducing prostaglandin production, which normally protects the stomach lining. Smoking damages the gastroduodenal mucosa, increasing the risk of PUD. Ethanol in alcohol irritates the gastric lining, and caffeine increases acid production, all contributing to ulcer formation (Lanas & Chan, 2019).

Scenario 2: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

GERD is caused by frequent acid reflux, where stomach acids backwash into the esophagus, causing burning pain. Smoking exacerbates this by relaxing the lower esophageal sphincter, while alcohol and coffee increase acid production. Obesity and connective tissue disorders are additional risk factors (Clarrett & Hachem, 2018).

Scenario 3: Upper GI Bleed

Upper GI bleeding occurs in the esophagus, stomach, or the beginning of the small intestine. It ranges from life-threatening to minor, detectable by stool tests. Common causes include peptic ulcers, esophageal varices (common in liver disease patients), and esophagitis (Steele, 2020).

Scenario 4: Diverticulitis

Diverticulitis results from the pressure build-up in the colon due to insufficient fiber in the diet, leading to constipation. Repeated pressure and straining cause diverticulosis, where small pouches (diverticula) form in the colon. These pouches can become inflamed or infected, resulting in diverticulitis (Young-Fadok, 2018).

Scenario 5: Portal Hypertension

Portal hypertension, often associated with cirrhosis from excessive alcohol consumption, occurs when blood flow through the liver is obstructed, causing increased pressure in the portal vein. This leads to complications like varices and ascites (Arab, Barrera & Arrese, 2017).

Part 2: Ascites

Ascites, the accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, is caused by portal hypertension. High pressure in the portal veins leads to leakage of protein-rich fluid from the liver and intestines into the abdomen (Arab, Barrera & Arrese, 2017).

Scenario 6: Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE)

Hepatic encephalopathy is a decline in brain function due to severe liver disease. Cirrhosis impairs the liver’s ability to remove toxins from the blood, leading to their accumulation in the brain, causing confusion, disorientation, and flapping tremors (Ferenci, 2017).

Scenario 7: Sudden Onset of Abdominal Pain

Sudden abdominal pain may indicate gastrointestinal ulcers, which can cause internal bleeding, affecting blood pressure and heart function. Untreated ulcers can lead to severe complications like heart attacks (Steele, 2020).

Scenario 8: Acute Cholecystitis

Question 1:

Gallstones are hard deposits of bile that form in the gallbladder due to excessive cholesterol, bilirubin, or inadequate bile salts. These stones can block the bile ducts, causing the gallbladder to enlarge and bile ducts to dilate (Ibrahim et al., 2018).

Question 2:

Jaundice occurs when excess bilirubin accumulates in the body due to the liver’s inability to filter it from the blood, often because of blocked bile ducts or liver dysfunction, leading to yellowing of the skin and eyes.

Scenario 9: Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis develops when digestive enzymes activate within the pancreas, causing inflammation. Chronic alcohol consumption is a major risk factor, as ethanol metabolism produces harmful byproducts that damage pancreatic cells, leading to chronic inflammation (Kleeff et al., 2017).

Scenario 10: Hepatitis B

Symptoms of Hepatitis B, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and dark urine, along with a history of risky behaviors like unprotected sex and needle sharing, indicate a Hepatitis B infection (Terrault et al., 2018).

Scenario 11: Ulcerative Colitis (UC)

Ulcerative colitis is an immune-mediated condition where the body’s immune system attacks the cells of the digestive tract, causing inflammation and ulcers in the colon and rectum (Xu et al., 2019).

Scenario 12: Acute Kidney Injury

The patient is suffering from postrenal acute kidney injury due to nephropathy obstruction, leading to restricted urine flow. This type of AKI is associated with symptoms like lower extremity swelling and can result from congenital defects or other blockages (Mehran, Dangas & Weisbrod, 2019).

Scenario 13: Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

The APRN should explain the components of GFR, which estimates blood flow through the glomeruli. Understanding normal GFR and factors affecting it helps in diagnosing renal function disorders (Bersie et al., 2020).

Scenario 14: Autoregulation

Autoregulation involves the body’s ability to maintain stable blood flow despite changes in blood pressure. The APRN should explain the relationship between blood flow, pressure, and how the body adjusts to maintain homeostasis (Wang, Ortega-Gutierrez & Peterson, 2018).

Scenario 15: Hormonal Regulation

The APRN should discuss hormonal regulation, focusing on the feedback mechanisms and the role of the thyroid system in maintaining homeostasis. Understanding how organs produce and regulate hormones is crucial (Bersie et al., 2020).

Scenario 16: Pyelonephritis

Pyelonephritis is kidney inflammation due to bacterial infection, often caused by urinary tract obstruction, which allows bacteria to multiply and spread to the kidneys (Johnson & Russo, 2018).

Scenario 17: Chronic Renal Failure

Chronic renal failure is primarily caused by diabetes and hypertension. High blood sugar and pressure damage kidney blood vessels, impairing function and leading to kidney failure over time (Mehran, Dangas & Weisbrod, 2019).


Arab, J. P., Barrera, F., & Arrese, M. (2017). Bile acids and portal hypertension. Annals of Hepatology, 16, S83-S86.

Bersie Larson, L. M., Gyoneva, L., Goodman, D. J., Dorfman, K. D., Segal, Y., & Barocas, V. H. (2020). Glomerular filtration and podocyte tensional homeostasis: Importance of the minor type IV collagen network. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology.

Clarrett, D. M., & Hachem, C. (2018). Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Missouri Medicine, 115(3), 214.

Ferenci, P. (2017). Hepatic encephalopathy. Gastroenterology Report, 5(2), 138-147.

Ibrahim, M., Sarvepalli, S., Morris-Stiff, G., Rizk, M., Bhatt, A., Walsh, R. M., … & Burke, C. A. (2018). Gallstones: Watch and wait or intervene. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 85(4), 323-331.

Johnson, J. R., & Russo, T. A. (2018). Acute pyelonephritis in adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 378(1), 48-59.

Kleeff, J., Whitcomb, D. C., Shimosegawa, T., Esposito, I., Lerch, M. M., Gress, T., … & Muñoz, J. E. D. (2017). Chronic pancreatitis. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 3(1), 1-18.

Lanas, A., & Chan, F. K. (2019). Peptic ulcer disease. The Lancet, 390(10094), 613-624.

Mehran, R., Dangas, G. D., & Weisbord, S. D. (2019). Contrast-associated acute kidney injury. New England Journal of Medicine, 380(22), 2146-2155.

Steele, C. (2020). Upper GI bleed. In Resources for Optimal Care of Emergency Surgery (pp. 137-137). Springer, Cham.

Terrault, N. A., Lok, A. S., McMahon, B. J., Chang, K. M., Hwang, J. P., Jonas, M. M., … & Wong, J. B. (2018). Update on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic hepatitis B: AASLD 2018 hepatitis B guidance. Hepatology, 67(4), 1560-1599.

Wang, A., Ortega-Gutierrez, S., & Petersen, N. H. (2018). Autoregulation in the Neuro ICU. Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 20(6), 20.

Xu, X., Yang, W., Liang, Q., Shi, Y., Zhang, W., Wang, X., … & Yin, L. (2019). Efficient and targeted drug/siRNA co-delivery mediated by reversibly crosslinked polymersomes toward the anti-inflammatory treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Nano Research, 12(3), 659-667.

Young-Fadok, T. M. (2018). Diverticulitis. New England Journal of Medicine, 379(17), 1635-1642.

Detailed Assessment Instructions for the NURS 6501N Knowledge Check Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Assignment

Week 5: Concepts of Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

Patients of gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders often face life-altering changes, including changes to diet, new treatment regimens, and more. For some disorders, treatments can include surgery.

Gastrointestinal conditions, such as ulcers, diverticulitis, and pancreatitis, often cause varying levels of pain and discomfort. Hepatobiliary conditions can also bring significant changes to patient routines and well-being.

This week, you examine fundamental concepts of gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders. You explore common disorders in these categories, and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the life span

Learning Resources

Required Readings

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 38: Structure and Function of the Renal and Urological Systems including Summary Review
  • Chapter 39: Alteration of Renal and Urinary Function (stop at Fluids and electrolytes); Summary Review
  • Chapter 41: Structure and Function of the Digestive System (stop at Tests of digestive function); Summary Review
  • Chapter 42: Alterations of Digestive Function (stop at Cancer of the digestive track); Summary Review

Osna, N. A., Donohue, T. M., Jr., & Kharbanda, K. K. (2017). Alcoholic liver disease: Pathogenesis and current management. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 38(2), 7–21

Document: NURS 6501 Midterm Exam Review (PDF document)

Note: Use this document to help you as you review for your Midterm Exam in Week 6.

Required Media

Module 3 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 3 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Knowledge Check. (2m)

Liver Function Tests

MedCram. (2013, April 14). Liver function tests LFTs explained clearly by [Video file]. Retrieved from

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 11 minutes.

Liver Diseases

MedCram. (2019, May 15). Diagnosis of key liver diseases: Hepatitis A, B C vs. alcoholic vs. ischemic (AST vs ALT labs) [Video file]. Retrieved from

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.

Liver Pathophysiology

MedCram. (2013, April 9). Liver explained clearly: Pathophysiology, LFTs, hepatic diseases  [Video file]. Retrieved from

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 14 minutes.

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 41 and 42 that relate to the hepatobiliary system. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at

Knowledge Check: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

In this exercise, you will complete a 10- to 20-essay type question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.

Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:

    • Ulcers
    • Hepatitis markers
    • After HP shots
    • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
    • Pancreatitis
    • Liver failure—acute and chronic
    • Gall bladder disease
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
    • Diverticulitis
    • Jaundice
    • Bilirubin
    • Gastrointestinal bleed – upper and lower
    • Hepatic encephalopathy
    • Intra-abdominal infections (e.g., appendicitis)
    • Renal blood flow
    • Glomerular filtration rate
    • Kidney stones
    • Infections – urinary tract infections, pyelonephritis
    • Acute kidney injury
    • Renal failure – acute and chronic

Complete the Knowledge Check By Day 7 of Week 5

To complete this Knowledge Check:

Module 3 Knowledge Check

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