Occupational Health A Repetitive Strain Injury Discussion

Occupational Health A Repetitive Strain Injury Discussion

Assessment Task 2 Student UNIT CODE UNIT WMTLLU806A

TITLE Qualification 10512

NAT Code Task Number Assessment 2 Assess and manage patients with lower leg ulceration related to circulatory insufficiency Qualification Graduate Certificate in Wound Title Management Task Name Clinical Case Review Description of assessment task to be completed • • • • • • This is one of fourassessment tasks students need to successfully complete to be deemed competent for this unit. This assessment contributes 40% of the total graded assessments for this unit. Marks will be scaled appropriately. To complete this assessment task student must answer a series of short answer questions based on simulated clinical cases. The assessment task is based on the clinical cases for this unit of competency presented on moodle. Students will receive feedback and allocated mark for each question. . You must achieve an overall mark of Satisfactory across all sections to be deemed satisfactory in this assessment. Conditions of assessment • • • • •

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This assessment activity is in the form of an open book written assessment completed out of class. The clinical cases and questions will be available for the assessment period. You must upload their responses to the assessment questions to moodle as a word document according to the assignment submission instructions. If you receive an unsatisfactory mark will be required to complete a second assessment. The second assessment will be based on the alternative clinical case. You must adhere to the Graduate Certificate level requirements for referencing resources used and demonstrating the skills for research by using contemporary reference sources. Assessment Dates Please refer to moodle for the assessment availability and due date. Instructions to students • • • • • Refer to the assignment instructions on moodle. Respond to each of the questions on a separate word document. Use the suggested word allocation as a guide. You may use dot points or bullets to list items in your answer. References where included must be completed using the Harvard author date system according to institutional policy. Your mark and feedback will be returned via moodle. Warning – Uncontrolled when printed! The current version of this document is kept on the William Light Institute website. Authorised by: Academic Director Smartfutures Pty Ltd ABN 31 127 177 637 T/A The William Light Institute Original Issue: Draft Document Owner: Academic Director Smartfutures Pty Ltd ABN 31 127 177 637 T/A The William Light Institute Current Version: Draft 26/08/2021 Version: Draft Page 1 of 2 Assessment Task 2 Student The following 6 questions relate to the Unit 6 Clinical Case: Mrs Robina No Estimated words (approx) Question Grade allocated The Following 4 questions relate to 1 100 How would you classify the aetiology and features of Mrs Robina’s leg wound? Give justification for your selection. Satisfactory/Not Yet Satisfactory 2 200 Describe the physiologicalalterations in the normal vascular and lymphatic supply contributing to the risk of wounding and poor wound healing evident in Mrs Robina’s assessment. Satisfactory/Not Yet Satisfactory 3 200 Describe the key elements which you would include in Mrs Robina’s comprehensive wound management plan and the time frames for review. Satisfactory/Not Yet Satisfactory 4 300 Describe your rationale for any compression therapy used in Mrs Robina’s treatment plan. Discuss the evidence for any therapies would you employ and the physiological effects and side effects of each. Satisfactory/Not Yet Satisfactory 5 200 What specific patient education would you provide to Mrs Robina regarding care of her wound and reducing her risk of further injury? Satisfactory/Not Yet Satisfactory 6 100 Describe the likely psychosocial effects of Mrs. Robina’s wound. Discuss how you would incorporate strategies which enhance wellbeing into your treatment plan Overall result 4 marks Satisfactory/Not Yet Satisfactory Warning – Uncontrolled when printed! The current version of this document is kept on the William Light Institute website. Authorised by: Academic Director Smartfutures Pty Ltd ABN 31 127 177 637 T/A The William Light Institute Original Issue: Draft Document Owner: Academic Director Smartfutures Pty Ltd ABN 31 127 177 637 T/A The William Light Institute Current Version: Draft 26/08/2021 Version: Draft Page 2 of 2 Graduate Certificate in Wound Management WMTLLU806A: Assess and manage patients with lower leg ulceration related to circulatory insufficiency Case Study Mrs Robina is a 78 year old female who is refereed to your wound management outpatient clinic by her local doctor for assessment of a wound on her right leg. She first presented to her local doctor two weeks ago but the wound has failed to heal. Past Medical History:       She describes her health as good. She takes no medication She developed varicose veins in both her legs after her third pregnancy. She had stripping and ligation of veins in her legs 40 years ago however the varicose veins have returned. Her legs have been getting swollen in the evening for approximately the last 5 years. This has increased over the last 8 months with increased swelling throughout the day. She complains of leg pain when standing for long periods of time. This is relieved when she sits down and puts her leg up. She does not remember ever having a wound on her leg which did not heal. She has never smoked. Patient demographics:   Height 170cm Weight 82kg Social history: Mrs Robina lives at home with her husband. She is actively involved as a volunteer in her local community including serving at the community shop one afternoon per week. Her husband has chronic illnesses including heart disease and arthritis which restrict his mobility. Mrs Robina is responsible for the shopping and food preparation and all household chores. She drives a car and regularly is required to transport her husband to medical appointments. They have three adult children, with one living locally with two young children. Recently the wound on her leg has made prolonged standing difficult so she has had to limit her level of activity including reducing her hours of community service which she is disappointed about. Nutrition Mrs Robina states that she aims for a healthy balanced diet and cooks meat, grain and vegetable based dishes for herself and her husband. She states that as she has gotten older that she finds that her appetite for meat has decreased and has found herself eating smaller portions than her husband. She tries to eat three meals a day, however finds that a small snack at lunch time is sufficient on most days. Warning – Uncontrolled when printed! The current version of this document is kept on the William Light Institute website. Authorised by: Academic Director Smartfutures Pty Ltd ABN 31 127 177 637 T/A The William Light Institute Document Owner: Academic Director Smartfutures Pty Ltd ABN 31 127 177 637 T/A The William Light Institute Current Version: 23/06/2016 Page 1 of 4 Graduate Certificate in Wound Management WMTLLU806A: Assess and manage patients with lower leg ulceration related to circulatory insufficiency Case Study Wound History She says that the wound occurred when she knocked her leg on a piece of wood in the garden a couple of month ago. Initially it was a small laceration, approximately 4 cm long which she covered with a bandage. During the ensuring period it has increased in size and started to produce large amounts of exudate. She says the exudate is sometimes offensive and soaks through her clothing frequently during the day especially when she is working at the shop. She saw her local doctor two weeks previously and was advised to cover the wound with gauze and a crepe bandage and has recommended changing it every day. Upon review the wound had failed to improve so referral for further opinion was indicated. She says the wound is not painful but her legs feel heavy and ache at the end of the day. Assessment and Physical Examination Mrs Robina arrives unaccompanied to the wound management clinic. She is alert and mobile but walks unaided with a moderately pronounced limp. She admits feeling ‘generally unwell’ for the last few days. Vital signs are as follow:    Blood Pressure 130/95 Heart Rate 86 Temperature 38.4C Physical Examination revealed the following:         There is mild oedema to the lower leg and the skin is dry and scaly with some reddish brown pigmentation over the ankle region extending to the lower leg. There is some indentation of the skin in the area where the crepe bandage had been wrapped around. There is evidence of varicose veins over the calf and thigh on the right leg. The wound is over the medial aspect of the lower leg it is covered with a gauze dressing and a bandage. Some of the dressing has adhered to the wound bed. There is evidence of serous exudate on the gauze which has soaked through the bandage, and the bandages are slightly malodorous. There is some erythema to the skin surrounding the immediate peri-wound area. The surrounding skin is also dry and scaly and the texture of the skin changes from soft to a more firm texture around mid to distal calf. Capillary refill time is less than 2 seconds. Dorsalis pedis pulse is able to be palpated. Posterior tibial not assessed due to the location of the wound. The ankle brachial pressure index is 0.96 in the right leg, with DP and PT pressures greater than 120 mmHg. Warning – Uncontrolled when printed! The current version of this document is kept on the William Light Institute website. Authorised by: Academic Director Smartfutures Pty Ltd ABN 31 127 177 637 T/A The William Light Institute Document Owner: Academic Director Smartfutures Pty Ltd ABN 31 127 177 637 T/A The William Light Institute Current Version: 23/06/2016 Page 2 of 4 Graduate Certificate in Wound Management WMTLLU806A: Assess and manage patients with lower leg ulceration related to circulatory insufficiency Case Study Blood Results The following blood results represent her biochemical and cellular markers on presentation to the wound management clinic. Pathology C-Reactive Protein White Cell Count Neutrophil Count Monocytes Count Haemoglobin (Hb) Platelet Count Sodium (Na) Potassium (K+) Chloride Albumin Urea Creatinine Total Protein Result 50 10.8 7.4 0.8 128 210 141 3.3 99 29 7.1 98 64 Normal Range

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Political Landscape Analysis

Political Landscape Analysis

NURS FPX 8010 Capella Formal & Informal Power in Healthcare Organizations Assessment


Using the case scenario provided, write a 3–4 page analysis of the organization’s political landscape, including formal and informal power structures at play and their impact on culture, policy, and communications.

Understanding the political landscape of an organization is key when developing strategic priorities. Knowing the key players and how to leverage relationships will help you develop a strategic plan that is meaningful to all stakeholders. Gaining stakeholder buy-in is the key to success when attempting to meet the strategic goals outlined on a balanced scorecard.

This assessment provides an opportunity for you to gain insight into organizational power structures and their effects on organizational culture, policies, and communications.

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By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

  • Competency 2: Analyze formal and informal power structures in an organization.
    • Analyze the formal and informal lines of power within an organization.
    • Incorporate organizational power dynamics as a factor in executive-level decision-making.
    • Identify the appropriate source of power for achieving a primary strategic objective.
  • Competency 4: Recommend policy changes that support a strategic plan.
    • Assess the potential impact or influence of power on organizational policy.
  • Competency 5: Address assessment purpose in effective written or multimedia presentations, incorporating appropriate evidence and communicating in a form and style consistent with applicable professional and academic standards.
    • Articulate meaning relevant to the main topic, scope, and purpose of the prompt.
    • Apply APA formatting to in-text citations and references.


For this assessment, use the following case scenario:

You are a new nurse executive at a community-based hospital system in the southeastern region of the United States. The system is not-for-profit and serves five rural counties. The system comprises one flagship hospital, three smaller critical access hospitals, and a number of clinics and urgent care centers. The healthcare system serves a diverse population of insured, Medicare, Medicaid, and uninsured patients. The hospital is Joint Commission accredited and for three years in a row has been rated as a Top 100 Hospital.

Historically, the hospital system has been physician-centric, meaning that the physician staff have had the power to influence change, policy, and protocol. The current chief executive officer (CEO) was recently hired from a large university-affiliated hospital system. The chief medical officer (CMO) started the organization’s orthopedic program (one of the most lucrative service lines) and has been with the organization for more than 25 years. He is well respected in the local community and serves on a number of community boards. In light of this strong influence from the department of medicine, nursing has struggled over the past five years. You are the second chief nursing officer (CNO) in four years. The hospital board is applying pressure to seek Magnet designation, which was recently lost due to poor leadership by your predecessor.

The hospital has recently adopted the hospitalist model to cover all in-patients. The hospitalist group was developed by physician leaders in the organization and operates as a separate department within the organization. The hospitalist group desires to become a limited liability corporation (LLC) to maximize benefit offerings but needs a larger staff to make this happen. They have presented a proposal to executive leadership to transfer all advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) working in the organization (there are more than 50) to the hospitalist group, which is housed under the department of medicine. The CMO is spearheading this initiative. Traditionally, APRNs were hired and managed by the department of nursing.

As the new CNO, you have been approached by a group of 15 APRNs who are against the transition as it will severely impact their scope of practice, in addition to affecting their paid time off, salary, and work hours. The CMO has offered to make APRNs eligible for the annual physician hospitalist bonus structure, as an incentive. At the same time, the CMO has informally proposed that a new policy be created for APRN hospital privileges. If APRNs choose not to join the hospitalist group, they will not be eligible for hospital privileges. In the state in which the organization is located, a supervising physician is required for APRN practice.


Analyze the organization’s political landscape. Examine formal and informal power structures at play and how they affect organizational culture, policies, and communications at all levels.

Lessons learned from your analysis of the organization’s political landscape will provide useful insight into important contextual factors for consideration as you work through Assessments 2, 3, and 4.

Note: Remember that you can submit all or a portion of your draft analysis to Smarthinking for feedback, before you submit the final version for this assessment. If you plan on using this free service, be mindful of the turnaround time of 24–48 hours for receiving feedback.

Analysis Format and Length

Format your document using APA style.

  • Use the APA Style Paper Template [DOCX]. An APA Style Paper Tutorial [DOCX] is also provided to help you in writing and formatting your analysis. Be sure to include:
    • A title page and references page. An abstract is not required.
    • A running head on all pages.
  • Use the following section headings to ensure thorough content coverage and flow.
    • Formal and Informal Lines of Power.
    • Organizational Power Influences on Executive-Level Decision-Making.
    • The Impact of Power on Organizational Policy.
    • Sources of Power.
  • Provide a short conclusion to your analysis in the form of a summary or editorial.
  • Your analysis should be 3–4 pages in length, excluding the title and references pages.

The following tasks correspond to the grading criteria in the assessment scoring guide, so be sure to address each point. Read the performance-level descriptions for each criterion to see how your work will be assessed.

  • Analyze the formal and informal lines of power within the organization.
    • What source of power is being used by the different stakeholders? For example: authority, rewards, coercion, expertise, reputation, personal power.
    • Describe the effects of power structures on organizational culture, policies, and communications at all levels.
  • Incorporate organizational power dynamics as a factor in executive-level decision making.
    • Based on your analysis of internal power structures and your perspective as CNO, what would be the best way to respond to the concerns of the ARPNs in this scenario, and why?
    • What support for your response can be found in the evidence-based literature?
    • What underlying assumptions might influence your decision making?
  • Assess the potential impact or influence of power on organizational policy.
    • What is the basis for your conclusions?
  • Identify the appropriate source of power for achieving a primary strategic objective.
    • For example: authority, rewards, coercion, expertise, reputation, personal power.
    • What evidence do you have to support your conclusion?
  • Articulate meaning relevant to the main topic, scope, and purpose of the prompt.
    • Write with a specific purpose and audience in mind.
    • Adhere to scholarly and disciplinary writing standards.
    • Proofread your writing to minimize errors that could distract readers and make it more difficult for them to focus on the substance of your analysis.
  • Apply APA formatting to in-text citations and references.

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Fire Prevention Organization and Management Unit VIII

Fire Prevention Organization and Management Unit VIII

For your final assignment, you will create an original, informational, three-minute community risk reduction video. This video should provide a clear vision of yourself speaking. Ensure you dress properly and speak naturally in a pleasant, social way. You may use any recording equipment to record your video, including a cell phone. Record your video in front of a local firehouse, fire apparatus, or another relevant backdrop. If you record your video outside, ensure that there are no distracting or overbearing sounds that hinder the ability to clearly hear you.
After you record the video, you will upload it to YouTube. Review this document to assist you in the process: YouTube Upload Instructions. To submit your three-minute video, copy the HTML code from YouTube into a Word document and submit it through Blackboard along with the transcript of your video and a reference page containing any references used.
In your three-minute video, you must introduce yourself and discuss:

aspects of fire prevention, safety, or risk reduction topic pertinent to your local area or organization (or future organization);
fire prevention research involved with your selected topic;
the effect of departmental influences on your selected topic (or in general fire prevention programs and activities); and
strategies for fire prevention involved with your topic.

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The following resources will aid you in developing your video. Please review them prior to beginning the assignment.
Video Quality Assurance Guidelines
Recording and Uploading a Video
Remember to review the rubric before you submit the link to your original video.
If you do not have a way to record a video, you are allowed to create an eight-slide PowerPoint presentation instead. For the presentation, you must follow the same prompt as above, but also include at least four images; a title slide with your name, the date, and the title of your original project; a reference slide; and voice-over narration for every slide (other than the reference slide). Ensure you follow APA guidelines. For information about creating a presentation using PowerPoint, view PowerPoint Basics or reach out to the Writing Center for assistance.
If you decide to complete a PowerPoint instead of a video, remember to review the rubric before you submit your presentation.

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Nongovernmental Agencies Involved in Global Issues: COVID-19

Nongovernmental Agencies Involved in Global Issues: COVID-19

For this assessment, you will complete a 3 to 5-page analysis of the differences between NGOs and government-sponsored programs as it pertains to global public health.

In this assessment, you will gain an understanding of the broad concepts and issues related to global health, nursing’s role, and the ways in which government-sponsored programs and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) affect how care is delivered.

The Institute of Medicine (1997, p. v) characterized the connection the United States has to global health in these words:

America has a vital and direct stake in the health of people around the globe, and this interest derives from both America’s long and enduring tradition of humanitarian concern and compelling reasons of enlightened self-interest. Our considered involvement can serve to protect our citizens, enhance our economy, and advance U.S. interests abroad.

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The healthcare community is recognizing that addressing health and disease issues must take place within a larger context—a global context. The health issues of developed and undeveloped countries are converging. The World Health Organization (2018) noted that the “development of a society, rich or poor, can be judged by the quality of its population’s health, how fairly health is distributed across the social spectrum, and the degree of protection provided from disadvantage as a result of ill-health” (“The Commission Calls,” para. 3).

Institute of Medicine. (1997). America’s vital interest in global health: Protecting our people, enhancing our economy, and advancing our international interests. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5717

World Health Organization. (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Retrieved from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241563703_eng.pdf?ua=1

Assessment Summary
Multiple government-funded agencies work worldwide to have a positive effect on health disparities across the globe. It is important for doctoral-prepared nurses to be aware of nongovernment funding organizations (NGOs) that are also affecting global healthcare issues.

NGOs originated with the formation of the United Nations in 1945. They are generally defined as nonprofit entities independent of governmental influence, although they may receive government funding. The term NGO is not typically applied to U.S.-based nonprofit organizations. Generally, the label is given to organizations operating on an international level, although some countries classify their own civil society groups as NGOs(GrantSpace, n.d.).

In this assessment, you are tasked with interviewing an individual from an NGO of interest that works in some way within the realm of public or global health. If you do not have such an organization that you are interested in, then it is acceptable to interview someone from your own organization who has a focus on public health and knowledge of working with NGOs. Remember that you should be looking for NGOs or population health considerations that are relevant to countries beyond just the United States.

Assessment Instructions
Consider a health topic of your choice and investigate what current NGOs are doing on behalf of your chosen topic. (Keep in mind that the country you focus on in this course should not be the United States.) Remember, you need to make contact with your chosen NGO, or population health professional with knowledge of NGOs, and interview them. After your interview, evaluate the NGO, paying special attention to its ability (and potential willingness) to get help with your health topic of choice. For your assessment, make sure you are addressing the following:

Differentiate public health NGOs from governmental public health organizations.
Provide a history of the selected organization.
Examine the financial health of the organization including how much money the organization has raised for the selected program.
Include current data related to money raised, money distributed, and the effect on the health initiative.
Identify countries where this organization has a presence.
Explain how stakeholders and members are selected or join the organization.
Explain the advantages public health NGOs have over government-sponsored programs.
Compare NGOs to government-sponsored programs in terms of the following:
How donations are sought and obtained.
How funds are distributed.
How application for assistance is made.
Summarize the challenges public health NGOs have in comparison with government-sponsored programs.
Analyze the sufficiency of data available to meet the criteria that public health NGOs use to choose to get involved in a health issue.
Examine the determining criteria for this organization to get involved in a health issue.
Data used.
Scope or severity.
Degree of need.
Discuss how you would approach this agency for assistance.
Explain how your research and interviewing experiences challenged or met your assumptions about public health organizations and delivery.
What surprised (or aligned with your expectations) public health delivery?
What surprised (or aligned with your expectations) about NGOs versus government-sponsored programs?
How has this experience affected you?
Be sure to convey purpose, in an appropriate tone and style, incorporating supporting evidence and adhering to organizational, professional, and scholarly writing standards.

Also, enter your hours spent interviewing and collecting data as practicum hours into CORE ELMS. Doing this is also part of your grade on this assessment.

Additional Requirements
Remember to include an introduction to your paper, which is not a heading of its own, and a references page.

In addition, your paper should meet the following requirements:

Written communication: Written communication is free of spelling and grammatical errors that detract from the overall message. Writing is clear, precise, and scholarly. Concepts flow in a logical order. Page margins and page numbering are accurate, according to current APA guidelines for style and format.
Length of paper: 3–5 double-spaced pages.
References: At least four references from peer-reviewed sources.
Additionally, make sure you are appropriately using and citing relevant information from your interview
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
Portfolio Prompt: You are required to save this learning activity to your portfolio.

* Differentiates public health NGOs from governmental public health organizations and provides specific examples that show a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of both types of organizations
*Explains and evaluates the advantages public health NGOs have over government-sponsored programs.
*Summarizes and evaluates the challenges public health NGOs have in comparison with government-sponsored programs.
*Analyzes the sufficiency of data available to meet the criteria public health NGOs use to choose to get involved in a health issue. Notes methods by NGOs to develop their criteria.
*Explains how practicum research and interviewing experiences challenged or met assumptions about public health organizations and delivery. Reflects on how this will affect future professional practice with regard to public health.
*Conveys clear purpose, in a tone and style well-suited to the intended audience. Supports assertions, arguments, and conclusions with relevant, credible, and convincing evidence. Exhibits strict and nearly flawless adherence to organizational, professional, and scholarly writing standards, including APA style and formatting.

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Local Resources: Plan for Multicultural Orientation Assignment

Local Resources: Plan for Multicultural Orientation Assignment

A multiculturally oriented human services professional must be aware of local cultural opportunities and supports to enhance and increase the empathetic and practical support given to clients. The purpose of this assignment is to encourage you to explore the area where you live to locate local resources and associated services and supports, as well as the particular needs of local clients, which will vary by student location. This assignment will help students identify strengths and areas for growth. Understanding local, relevant cultural needs and resources can help to identify and become aware of potential bias and limitations. When we are prepared to help clients from various cultural backgrounds, this increases self-confidence, and confidence clients have in us as informed, multiculturally oriented professionals.

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A multiculturally oriented human services professional must be aware of personal limits and strengths, have a plan for seeking feedback from clients, and have a plan for addressing limitations. The purpose of this assignment is to encourage you to develop a personal plan for being a multiculturally oriented human services professional. This assignment will help students to identify strengths and areas for growth, increase confidence in addressing cultural conflicts, and encourage self-awareness.


Write a 3-5 page paper (not counting the title page and reference page). You do not need to write an abstract. Follow current APA professional style standards. Cite and reference our textbooks, Cultural Engagement, by Chatraw and Prior (2019), and Cultural Humility, by Hook et al. (2017) as sources used for support in your paper. Cite and reference a website or document used

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Health Assessment (NUR 220)

Health Assessment (NUR 220)

Health History Admission Database Patient Name: Angelina Jolie DOB: 10/25/1967 Age: 54 MRN: 123456 Preferred Name: Angie POA/Spokesperson: Brad Pitt Reason for visit/seeking care: Annual Checkup Demographic Data Living Arrangements/Others in household: Patient live with her husband and her 12-year-old disabled daughter, as well as a full-time nanny and an international student in a house. Occupation: Lawyer Level of Education: Law degree Ability to Read/Write English: Yes Primary and Secondary languages: English Religion: Jewish Religious or cultural beliefs or practices that impact healthcare or could impact a hospital stay: No Race: Caucasian Ethnicity: Non-Hispanic Additions/Comments: Patient is competent to provide information, preferred pronounce is she/her, and gender identity is female. Medical History Allergies to medications and reactions: Penicillin – causes hives. Environmental allergies and reactions: Pine trees, and allergy induced asthma. Patient does not use any medications for allergy, accept Albuterol 1actuation for asthma which she takes only when needed. Chronic medical conditions and impact: Fibromyalgia – causes pain and discomfort in upper bilateral extremities, fatigue, insomnia, stiffness in her joints in the mornings, along with depression and anxiety. Patient also states that the pain gets worse in the winter months because of the exposure to cold temperatures. Patient states that her fibromyalgia is well managed with her medication.

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Hypertension – patient did not complain/stated about any symptoms. Patient stated that occasionally she gets headaches when her blood pressure gets to high. Patients’ blood pressure, however, is well managed with medication. Asthma – when patient has an episode she struggles to breath, her chest gets tight, and she gets restless. This symptom is resolved within about 5 minutes of using her asthma inhaler. Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) – occasionally the patient gets heartburn and is sometimes worse when earing certain food (acid/spices). Patient also states that occasionally she gets severe heartburn and hoarseness when she forgets to take her medication. However, the patient states that her GERD is well managed with medication. Previous surgeries/year/impact: 1985 – Rhinoplasty – for cosmetic reasons. 1987 – Foot surgery – patient states that she broken some bones in her foot during a ski accident and had to get surgery. 2004 – Appendectomy – patient states that her appendix got inflamed and had to be removed 2006 – Ovarian cyst removal Problems with anesthesia? None Objections to blood or blood products? None Prescription medications: dose, route, frequency, and reason for prescription: Prinivil 5 mg once daily, PO, for hypertension Omeprazole 100 mg once daily, PO, for gastroesophageal reflux. Duloxetine 60 mg once daily, PO, for fibromyalgia and anxiety Albuterol 1actuation, 90 mcg, inhalation, for asthma – as needed. Over the counter medication use and frequency: Advil: 200-400 mg as needed (once a day), PO, for pain Vitamin D supplements: 400 IU daily, for vitamin D deficiency. Use of herbal products, complementary therapy, or alternative therapy: None

Previous hospitalizations: Patient has no recent hospitalizations, or any long-term hospitalizations 2018 – Colonoscopy – patient went home after procedure and was not hospitalized 2009 – Pericarditis – patient was admitted for 5 days 2006 – Ovarian cysts removed – patient was admitted for one day 2004 – Appendectomy – patient was admitted for one day 2008 – Labor – patient was admitted for one day 1996 – Labor – patient was admitted for one day 1987 – Foot surgery – patient was admitted for one day 1985 – Rhinoplasty – patient went home after procedure Previous Injuries: Patients states that she had no recent injuries. Foot injury in 1987 – ski accident 2 Additional questions/ patient response: How does your allergies impact your daily life? Patient states, that the allergies do not impact her daily life except during allergy season (Spring and summer). During these months, the patient claims that she has to take her asthma inhaler with her when she wants to do physical activities and exercise. Patient also states that rarely she would wake up during night and struggle to breath, and when she uses her inhaler it keeps her up all night. How does your previous injuries impact your daily life? Patient states since her ski accident she cannot run anymore, which caused some weight gain. Patient also states that she has to wear special shoes (orthotic shoes) otherwise her feet is in a lot of pain. How do you feel after taking your medication? When taking my asthma inhaler, it helps alleviate symptoms of SOB chest pain. Patient states that the fibromyalgia relieves pain in her arms and relieves some of her anxiety (patient made a funny comment stating that she does not know if the relieving of the anxiety is just a “mental thing”). Patient states that the GERD medication is effective since she mostly experiences symptoms of heartburn only when she forgets to take her medication. Patient states that she did not feel good at the onset of starting her hypertension medicine, but now she feels better, and she has no concerns about her hypertension. Patient also states that since she started using vitamin D supplements, she feels more energetic. Health Maintenance Last physical exam: 02/01/2020 Last Dental Exam: 12/13/2020 Dentition: Good oral health Any implanted medical devices: None BSE/TSE (breast self-exam/testicular self-exam): Patient does not do BSE but goes routinely every 6 months for mammogram. Patients last mammogram was December 2020, and no lumps or masses was detected. Female: X last menstrual period 02/05/2021 pregnancies 1996 and 2008 live births 2 Immunizations (developmentally appropriate questions): Patient gets the flu shot every year since she was a teenager Patient received all her vaccinations as a baby Sleep and Rest Patterns: Patient goes to sleep around 10/11pm and wakes up in the morning around 6/7am. Patient has a disabled daughter that needs assistance throughout the night. Patient states on a good night she might get 6 hours of sleep, but on average she gets about 5 hours of sleep. Leisure and Exercise Activities: Skiing in the winter months and golfing some weekends in summer. Tobacco use: None Alcohol use: Occasionally (2/3 per month) Have you ever felt the need to Cut down on your drinking? Yes No Have you ever felt Annoyed by criticism of your drinking? Yes No Have you ever felt Guilty about your drinking? Yes No Have you ever had the need for an “eye-opener” to each a hangover or as a nerve steadier? Yes No

Recreational Drug use: Never Psychosocial Family and social relationships: Husband, and one 12-year-old daughter along with a full-time nanny and an international student. Are you in a relationship in which another person tries to control you? Yes No Has anyone physically harmed you in any way in the last twelve months? Yes No Do you feel safe at home? Yes No Current stressors: Patient states that running a business is stressful along with a little sleep every night for the past 12 years is catching up to her. Patient also states taking care of her daughter gets hard sometimes and she is always worried about her and always tried to do the best for her. Patient also states that the pandemic is stressful since it has a financial impact on most people. Currents pain issues: Patient states that she occasionally has back pain, but she takes Advil to relieve the pain. Patient also complains about pain in her arms, hands, and shoulders (bilateral upper extremities) associated with her fibromyalgia, but her medicine does help to relieve some of the pain. Impact of pain or stress on your life or self-concept: Yes, sometimes the patient can’t go to work, and cant part take in family activities like skiing, golfing, and going out to socialize with friends and family. Mental health diagnosis or concerns: Patient states that she has no diagnosis. However, she sometimes feels depressed and anxious, but she think it is a “normal” feeling that most parents with disabled children experience. Patient states that her anxiety and depression started when she discovered that her daughter has special needs and that it got a little worse as soon as she was diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Patient does not have any major concerns about her mental health.

2 Additional questions/ patient response: How does your anxiety and depression impact your daily life? Patient states that it does not impact her negatively, she just always wants to make sure her daughter gets everything that she needs. It sometimes prevents her from focusing on her work and to get everything done that she needs to get done. Patient states that she thinks it is “normal” to have these feelings given all her circumstances. How is your relationship with your family? Patient has a good relationship with her family, and she has a busy household. She states that having a full-time caregiver help’s a lot. Her parents live in Florida in the winter months and comes back home to Cleveland in the summer months, during the winter months she and her daughter misses her parents a lot. Patient states that everyone in the household has a healthy relationship and everyone works well together to take care of her daughter and to get everything done. How does your pain impact your daily life? Patients says that sometimes she cannot go to work because the pain is just too much. Patient states that since she runs her own business, if she does not go to work, she does not make money, thus it impacts her business occasionally. Patient also can’t lift her daughter anymore and thus always needs to call someone to help her change her daughter. Activities of Daily Living Assistive Devices: None Implanted Devices: None Transportation: By car Use of community Services: No Dietary Needs or practices: None Issues with swallowing or other issues interfering with digestion: No issues with swallowing but struggles with acid reflux after ingesting foods rich in acid and spices. Issues interfering with the ability to obtain or prepare food: None

Any gain or weight loss in the last three or four months: Yes, 10 pounds in the last 4 months, due to COVID, and being inactive. Additions/Comments: Patient claim that she does not have any issues with swallowing or digestion, but occasionally struggle with acid reflux. Patient does take omeprazole for acid reflux. Patient claim weight gain is due to the pandemic and that she is not as active as she used to be. Learning Needs Preferred learning method: Reading/visual Learning needs: None Barriers to learning: None Additions/Comments: Patient states that she does not study as much anymore, but occasionally still attends some courses that she might need to develop her business. The patient still has the same study group from law school, and they meet once a week/every other week to keep educating each other and keep their education growing. Falls Risk (Morse Scale) 1. History of falling within the last three months? No = 0 Yes = 25 2. Secondary diagnosis? No = 0 Yes = 15 3. Ambulatory aid: Bedrest/nurse = 0 crutches/cane/walker=15 furniture=30 4. IV/saline lock? No = 0 Yes = 20 5. Gait/Transfers: immobile/nml/BR=0 weak = 10 impaired = 20 6. Mental status: oriented to own ability = 0 forgets limitations = 15 No Risk = 0 to 24 Low Risk = 25 to 50 High Risk = greater than or equal to 50 Patient Score: 0. Patient has no risk of falling. Comments if applicable: Patient appears stable, and in control of her gait.

Patient Score: 23. Patient is at low risk/no risk for developing a pressure sore/ulcer. Comments if applicable: None Summary of assessment findings: In summary, the patient is 53-year-old female who came in for her annual checkup. Patient seems in good overall health, with no new complains. Patient sees her dentist every 6 months and also goes for her mammograms every 6 months. Patient was diagnosed with hypertension, fibromyalgia, Gerd, allergy induced asthma and anxiety. Patient takes medication for all of these conditions and it is all well managed. Patient also has Vitamin D deficiency which she takes supplements for. Patient complains of pain associated in upper bilateral extremities associated with the fibromyalgia, and she takes medication for this. Patient also mentioned that she experiences some depression and anxiety which she thinks is “normal” and is as a result of taking care of her disabled daughter and her fibromyalgia. Patient is taking medication for this, and she states that her emotions and mental health is under control. Patient has allergies to penicillin and pine trees. Patient reported no use of tabaco and consumes 2/3 alcoholic beverages a month. Patient also denied any abuse of drugs.

Patient states that her sleep schedule is not ideal, and that she does not get enough sleep since she has to get up at night to assist her disabled daughter. Patient stated that she does not exercise a lot and did mention some weight gain. Patient does not have any learning, physical, or social barriers and she is capable of completing her daily tasks independently. Patient has a good family structure and extra help in taking care of her daughter. Patient stated that her only current stressors is running a business and taking care of her daughter along with dealing with the pandemic. Patient seemed alert during the entire checkup, she seemed in a good state of mind, with good hygiene, and she seemed well hydrated and well nourished. Patient did not have any follow up questions or any concerns. Identify 2 developmental theorists who apply to this patient, stage of development and one statement which made you decide this: • Erik Erikson Theory of Psychosocial Development: Developmental stage is stage 7. Generativity vs Stagnation. This stage take place during the middle adulthood (ages 40 to 65 yrs.). Since the patient is 53 years old this theory’s stage of development applies to her. This patient also has a supportive family and her own business, and, in this way, she is giving back to society. Through her successful business and supportive family, she develops a sense of the bigger picture through generativity. After her diagnosis she has started to feel unproductive and not as involved in her daily life as in the past. This might contribute to stagnation which individuals in this stage might experience. It is important for individuals like her to focus on the good and to make positive changes that will benefit themselves and others. • Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs: Tis hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory that comprise of a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. From the bottom of the hierarchy upwards the needs are physiological (food and clothing), safety (job security), love and belonging needs (friendship, esteem (prestige and feeling of accomplishment), and self-actualization (Achieving one’s full potential, including creative activities). The needs lower down in the hierarchy must be satisfied before individuals can attend to needs higher up. This patient has move through all of the hierarchy needs since she has good physiological needs (house, food, clothing, drink – and everything she needs for survival). She also has her safety needs fulfilled (patient has a good job, and she also has medical care, emotional security, freedom, social stability, property, health, and wellbeing). The patient also has love and belongingness needs, since she has a good family support and structure, feeling of belongingness, friendships, intimacy, a business, love, and affection. The patient has esteem needs in which she has esteem for herself (dignity, achievement of running her own business, independence in which she can take care and provide for herself and family) and also the desire for reputation or respect from others (her status and her prestige and the respect from her employees). The patient also has self-actualization needs in which she knows her potential, her self-fulfillment and seeking personal growth (discover better ways to deal with the care of her daughter and improving her business) as well as peak experiences. In this stage the patient is doing everything she can to become the most successful that she can be in everything that she does. If all of these needs are satisfied, the individual can function optimally. This patient seems to have met all of these needs, and therefore she will be able to function optimally. • Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development: Level 3: Postconventional (maintaining internal principles of self), Stage 5 and 6. Stage 5: Orientation to social contract legalism: since the patient is an older adult she associates with this stage. The patient is also a lawyer, which associates a lot with this theory, seeing that it is a lot about accepting and following the rules and laws and respecting the rights of other individuals. The patient has to honor some of her clients and has the obligation to her clients to do defend them and do the right thing, even when others do not agree with her.

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PSY 211 Module Four Activity

PSY 211 Module Four Activity

In the Module Four Activity Guidelines and Rubric, review the Overview, Scenario, and Prompt sections. Then answer each of the following questions with a minimum of 2 to 5 sentences.

Complete this template by replacing the bracketed text with the relevant information.

Describe which of Kübler-Ross’s stages of grief are most applicable to Jackie’s situation. Explain your response. Depression is the most applicable to Jackie’s situation. She is having feelings despair about her lack of mobility and independence, and as she reflects on her life she has regret about not giving back to society. She also views life as short fleeting and precious something we should never take for granted. Kübler-Ross’s stages of grief describe the depression stage as “As the dying person becomes even more aware of the reality of the situation, depression, despair, and a sense of hopelessness become the predominant emotional responses” (Sigelman, & Rider, 2017). The depression stage matches her description of her feelings.

Explain how a person experiences Kübler-Ross’s stages of grief. Address the following in your response:oDoes a person move through the stages in a linear fashion?

oWhat have you read or experienced about grief to support your answer? A person does not experience Kübler-Ross’s stages of grief in a linear fashion. People experience stages of grief in many ways. Some experience all stages and some only experience one or two of the stages. The often go in and out of the same stage multiple times. My what I call my second mother who was really just a very close family friend who I spent a lot of time with and considered my second mother wasdiagnosed with stage 4 brain cancer. When she was diagnosed, she was given six most at most to live. She only lived three. I spent a lot of time with her until the end even sat with her as she died holding her hand. The only two stages of grief I think she went through was anger that lasted for about two weeks and then acceptance. She accepted her death and seem to be a peace with it until the end. Her last week was very hard but even then, she seemed to be at peace with her death.

Explain why having a sense of cultural competence (empathy, respect, self-awareness, cultural awareness, communication) could help Jamie be a more effective caregiver.Because different cultures have different beliefs surrounding death and the afterlife it will be important for Jamie to have a good understanding of each culture to be able to better suite the needs of different people from different cultures. It will make it so she can connect easier with each patient and be able to suite each patients needs and wishes. It will also make it easier to work the families if you have a good understanding of their culture.

Given your unique needs, desires, and aspirations, describe some things that you feel will provide you with a sense of life satisfaction as you enter the later stages of the life span. One of my biggest needs to feel a sense of life satisfaction is knowing I have raised my three daughters with the right set of skills to be independent and successful in life. Knowing that I have equipped them to be self-sufficient and good caring people in this world would give me the biggest felling of life satisfaction. Another thing is the reason I am back in school. I want to know that I helped make a difference in people lives who really need the help. Therefore, I am back in school working to become a substance abuse counselor. I have lost two cousins to drugs and one uncle to alcohol. I am raising my cousin daughter as mine own because he couldn’t get clean. Because of this I want to help people who have substance abuse problems. I have been on the family side sitting 1 back watching feeling as though you can’t help them. Now I want to be on the side who is helping them. Making a difference.


Sigelman C. K., & Rider E. A. (2017). Life-Span Human Development.

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Adolescence: Contemporary Issues and Resources

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This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.


Teenage Depression


One of the major contemporary issues that teenagers face today is depression. Teenage depression is a mental health issue that leads to teenagers feeling sad and losing interest in activities (NIMH, n.d.). While it affects how one feels, thinks, or behaves, it also causes physical, emotional and functional problems. As argued by Kroning & Kroning (2016), teenage depression is a life-threatening concern today. A National comorbidity study in 2001-2004 consisting of 10,123 teens revealed that 11% of them suffered from depression. A 2015 report by the World Health Organization revealed that over 350 million suffered from depression globally. The National Institute of Mental Health found that in 2013, 2.7 teenagers aged 12 to 17 underwent a major depressive episode (Kroning & Kroning, 2016). Teenage depression as argued by Grand Canyon University (2018) is the leading cause of teenage suicide and suicide has become the second cause of death in youth aged 10-24 years.

External Stressors

There are several external stressors associated with depression in teenagers. One of the major stressors is bullying. Bullying has been a growing concern and is estimated to affect 20-30% of the students in the U.S. In the last few decades; society has [cmppp_restricted] evolved more with the rise of the internet and teenagers’ bullying has changed significantly. With the rise of social media, bullying has taken a new form and bullies are able to remain anonymous while hurting their victims without any care. With more than 80% of teenagers having social media accounts, cyberbullying has become a menace (Grand Canyon University, 2018). Another major stressor is social networks such as social media, friendships, and peer influencers. Teenagers often have the desire to form their own identity with age and stop being dependent on their parents. However, this leads to feelings of inner struggle and confusion. As their bodies develop, the feeling of self-esteem kicks in as society portrays idealistic body perfection.

Assessment Strategies

The head-to-toe assessment can be used to screen for depression in teenagers. This assessment starts the minute the nurse meets the patient. The nurse is able to observe the patient’s mood, consciousness level and hygiene. The nurse then conducts a head-to-toe assessment starting with the vital signs and then moving to neurologic assessment. Depressed teenagers as discussed above can cause physical, emotional and functional problems. The assessor should thus look for any physical anomalies such as changes in mood as well as emotional changes such as a high level of fear (Grand Canyon University, 2018). A Focused Neurological Assessment will identify any functional problems. This assessment starts with observing mood, behavior and ability to converse with the assessor.

There are additional questions that the assessor should ask such as whether the patients have ever been a victim of bullying. Another major question should focus on self-esteem by focusing on how the patient feels about themselves. Another question should focus on social networks to identify instances of cyberbullying, peer pressure, and failed relationships. Patient assessor confidentiality should be maintained at all levels. Information about the confidentiality of information should be provided to the teenage patient, and no such information should be released to the parents or guardian without patient’s consent. The parents and guardian should be educated on the importance of confidentiality (Grand Canyon University, 2018). However, in case of safety concerns such as jeopardy, harming others or bodily harm it is ethical to disclose such information for the safety of the patient and others. However, the patients should be aware of instances when confidential information can be disclosed.

Support Options 

A major support option involves building skills and education. There should be programs that educate teenagers on how to deal with stressors such as bullying. Such programs can be instituted at the society level or at schools. On the other hand, teenagers at greatest risk should be identified and offered more customized help. Parents and teachers should also be aware of what to assess to identify when teenagers are suffering from depression. For teenagers suffering from depression, a good support option is peer support. This involves receiving help from other teenagers who have suffered from a similar problem. Such help can occur through social support groups. In extreme cases, secondary support can also be integrated into the patient’s support system. This can be done through the introduction of a case manager the case manager plans, assess and implements different measures to facilitate recovery of the patient (Dummett & Williams, 2018). The use of these strategies can ensure that a teenager suffering from depression receive adequate care.



Dummett, N., & Williams, C. (2018). Overcoming Teenage Low Mood and Depression: A Five Areas Approach. CRC Press.

Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health assessment: Foundations for effective practice. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs434vn/health-assessment-foundations-for-effective-practice/v1.1/

Kroning, M., & Kroning, K. (2016). Teen depression and suicide: a silent crisis. Journal of Christian nursing33(2), 78-86.

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). NIMH » Teen Depression. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/teen-depression/index.shtml [/cmppp_restricted]

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Describe Childhood Residency

Describe Childhood Residency

A: Disadvantaged Consideration
Should you be considered a disadvantaged applicant? Refer specifically to social, economic, and or educational factors when making a determination.

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2021-22 ADEA AADSAS Application Update

The 2021-22 ADEA AADSAS® (ADEA Associated American Dental School Application Service) application opens on May 11 for applicants to begin creating their applications. Applicants will be able to submit their applications for consideration starting June 1. Changes for the upcoming cycle include:

  • “Document” Tab in Program Materials. Dental schools might request additional documents in the application. Applicants can upload up to three additional documents.
  • Letters of Evaluation. The composite letter/packet is now counted as one instead of three. Applicants can provide four total letters, regardless of the status of the composite/committee letter.
  • Disadvantaged Question. The “Personal Information” section has been reordered and revised to reflect the updates below. Note: The three questions have been removed. If dental schools decide to still collect this information, they can add the questions manually to their “Program Materials” section. Here are the changes:
    • The categories have been reordered on this page to read as follows:
      • Disadvantage Consideration
      • Family Situation (U.S. Applicants Only)
      • Childhood Residency
      • High School Situation
      • Relatives in Dentistry
    • The following questions have been removed:
      • In the “Childhood Residency” section:
        • In what country did you spend the majority of your life from birth to age 18?
        • In what state did you spend the majority of your life from birth to age 18?
        • Do you feel that the area you grew up in was medically underserved?
    • In the “High School Situation” section:
      • Did the high school you attended have many students eligible for free or reduced-price lunches?

Read Description of Childhood Residency Essay Example

Just like the vast majority of Americans, I had assumed there were only three levels of education in the United States until taking this course. When I realized there were six sections, the essential distinction became clear. I have had the privilege of experiencing life in every corner of the diamond, with the exception of the very top, thanks to the many places I have called home throughout the course of my lifetime. It was also fascinating to me to be able to experience so many tiers of our society’s social stratification in my short 23 years of existence. The American upper class is the most visible and widely portrayed social stratum, which attracts many foreigners to our country but is also the most elitist and unreachable. Ultimately, there are restrictions that I and many others are born with that prohibit us from progressing to higher levels, despite the fact that I was granted access to many of these experiences. The “American dream” that so many individuals in our society have is out of grasp for many people simply because of the circumstances into which they were born.

My early years, from around age three to about age nine, were spent in a modest middle-class home. Victorville, in the southern part of California, was my home. Many people’s concept of the perfect home would look something like this: two parents, two children, a three-bedroom house in a pleasant neighborhood. We never went hungry or even worried about it, the utilities were never a problem, and we felt completely secure in our surroundings. Then, when I was 9 years old, my mother and I lost our housing and were forced to live in our car, a storage unit, and eventually, the streets. For the ensuing years, we were constantly on the move; as a result, I lost an entire year of school; and my family and I often went without adequate nutrition or shelter, but I was too young to understand the gravity of our situation. My mother handed me up to my father and stepmother when I was 12 years old. They were residents of the violent metropolitan neighborhood of Bassett. For the second time in my life, I shared a three-bedroom home with a large family, this time including my foster sisters, step-sister, and two more step-siblings. After being removed from school for disciplinary reasons, I was readmitted and allowed to skip a grade, but the schools I attended lacked adequate resources and administration. There were no extracurriculars or tools to help us get ready for life after high school. I went to live with my grandma in Upland, California, when I turned 18. She was fortunate enough to find a home on the affluent side of town, at the top of the foothill. The three-bedroom house was plenty spacious for only Mom, my grandfather, and me. Every day I knew I would have something to eat because of how safe the neighborhood was and how strictly the HOA rules were enforced. For the first time in my life, I had my very own room, complete with a bed that didn’t require me to hold up my feet, reliable transportation, and a variety of useful tools. Last but not least, when I was twenty years old, I relocated once more to be closer to my ailing father. For someone working two minimum-wage jobs, going to school full-time, and caring for a disabled family member, our subsidized two-bedroom apartment in an industrial area was surprisingly reasonable. We had numerous fights with case managers and the SSA over his benefits. It makes sense to have more than just three simple levels, as these details convey the experience of moving through different social or economic classes over the course of a single lifetime. It’s likely that there are more than six tiers of American society, but it would be impossible to classify them all.

My socioeconomic background includes lower middle, underclass, working poor, upper middle, and finally working class. Before reaching the age of 20, I had several class transitions. I am able to make this distinction because there is one social tier that I have never belonged to: the upper classes. The lack of resources and the fact that I did not come from a privileged background are two of the primary factors that have kept me from achieving success. I suppose you could call the fact that my grandparents have very few financial worries a sign of prosperity, but that’s not the case. This is because they do not possess a sizable amount of wealth and property. It’s not “long” money; rather, it’s money that can be passed down through generations. When they pass away, wealthy people typically leave their properties and interests to their children or other relatives. The longer these items are kept in the family, the more valuable they become.

As a result of the estate’s longevity and weight, the family is safeguarded from financial insecurity. In the United States, wealth is generally “generational,” meaning it is passed down through families, which means the wealthy and powerful are able to decide who gets access to their resources. Relatedly, white people in the United States are disproportionately wealthy. Our class looked at a list of the top ten wealthiest people in the United States, and they were all white guys. In the United States, racial or ethnic background often determines how well a family does financially. This is due to the fact that white men were the only ones who benefited from the conquest and exploitation of America’s indigenous peoples in the outset, while people of color bore the brunt of the nation’s construction and thereafter suffered under its neglect and abuse.
Although the upper-class society is frequently the focus of media attention, its members make up a relatively tiny percentage of the U.S. population as a whole. In the past, I undervalued the magnitude of the wealth disparity between the affluent and everyone else. In the 1980s, the disparity widened as the population grew and the demand for manufacturing went up, but the majority of the increased earnings went to the elite instead of the general public. Federal tax policies developed in the 2000s to assist the upper class and help them keep their already enormous wealth led to a widening of the divide.

As was previously noted, most people’s socioeconomic standing is heavily influenced by their ethnicity and/or race. These roles are best illustrated by the American Ethnic Hierarchy, which places European-American Protestants at the top, followed by European-American Catholics, Jewish people, and the vast majority of Asians, and finally African-Americans, Latinx, Native Americans, and a small number of Asians at the bottom. These brackets approximate the likelihood of upward mobility in the United States when race is taken into account as a barrier. Those at the top aren’t any better than anyone else; they just have more resources to use in their systematic oppression of those they perceive to be beneath them since their predecessors have believed they are superior to everyone else from the beginning of time. The relative positions in this hierarchy have altered little throughout time, but there have been some positive shifts as a result of progress against prejudice and discrimination. For instance, the second tier, which includes the Irish, Italians, Jews, etc., is no longer discriminated against on the basis of ethnicity. This is because they are better able to artistically assimilate into the dominant culture than the third tier. The third layer consists of people of color who were forcibly transported from their homeland, either as slaves or indentured workers, and expected to assimilate into a culture that was not designed for them. The lower rung still suffers today from these disadvantages. Unfortunately, non-white people have never had access to the same level of economic opportunity, support, or control that white people have enjoyed. They weren’t only dealt a terrible hand, but they were also thrown into a game they didn’t know how to play with the odds stacked against them.

Though I only make up half of the race, I still face challenges associated with being black, such as being born into a poor family. While you’re born into poverty, it can feel like you’re entering the game in the fourth quarter when the opposing side is up 20 to 0. I came from a low-income family that relied on welfare and had neither the means nor the education to break the cycle. Because they had never figured out how to do it themselves, my family was unable to advise me on my pursuit of further education or professional chances. My high school did not place as much emphasis on preparing us for college or helping us choose a career path as it did on reducing violence and teen pregnancies. I lucked fortunate and got a helping hand from a stranger when I really needed it. However, many of the pupils, who were disproportionately Latinx and Black, did not share this experience. The vast majority of my contemporaries had children at an early age, worked in factories to make ends meet, relied on various forms of government aid and support, or enlisted in the armed forces because it seemed like their only other choice.

Despite the fact that there is still a great deal to learn about the inner workings of our class system and its effects on individual lives, it is abundantly evident that it is in dire need of change. The economic and social climate in our country is deteriorating. The working class is being hit hard, and the poor are growing in number. The 1%’s growing alienation from the rest of society is choking the economy. Sooner or later, the poor will outnumber the wealthy, and those at the top will be the only ones left.

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