Assignment
Title Written Essay
Value 40%
Week Due
Length 3000 words
Learning Outcomes 1,2,3,4
Assignment Task:

 

Essay topic is “Engaging 21st Century Learners”

 

Please note, the essay should be informed by Module 1&2 content and recommended readings and demonstrate wider investigation of this topic. Please find the lecture note for Module 1 & 2

Below.

 

ASSIGNMENT  MARKING CRITERIA

  • Review current theories of adolescent learning in relation to the needs of 21st century learner.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of 21st Century pedagogies in relation to technological demands of the information a
  • Demonstrate wider reading and critical and creative thinking and academic skills.
  • Demonstrates ability to write to high academic and professional standard while using appropriate APA referencing

Module 1(Content) Engaging 21st Century Learners

  • Learning and teaching in 21st Century context
  • Who are 21st Century learners?
  • Learning Theories
  • Junior secondary schooling in the information age
  • Student agency and teacher-student relationships
  • Teacher identity and challenges of teaching adolescents

Main points for discussion for the unit

  • Pedagogical frameworks in the context of culture and diversity
  • Cognitive theories as foundations for pedagogy
  • Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)
  • Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK)
  • 21st Century Pedagogical frameworks
  • Strategies for teaching and learning
  • Reflective learning and teaching

All of these points are in context of the learning environment, including time, place, culture and other socio-economic factors.

Module 1: Recommended Readings

Set Text:  Groundwater-Smith, S. and Mockler, N. (2015), Big Fish, Little Fish: Teaching in the Middle Years, Cambridge University Press.

Chapter 1 Challenges for teaching and learning in the middle years

Chapter 2 Thinking historically about the schooling of young people in the ‘middle years’

Chapter 3 The needs of learners in the middle years

Chapter  5 A fair go and student agency in the middle years classroom

Journal Articles:

Alderman, M. K., & MacDonald, S. (2015). A self-regulatory approach to classroom management: Empowering students and teachers. Kappa Delta Pi Record51(2), 52-56.

Cook-Sather, A. (2015). Addressing the question of authenticity in middle grades student voice work: Wrestling with politics, power, and purpose in education. Middle Grades Review1(2), 2.

Huda, M., Jasmi, K. A., Basiron, B., Hehsan, A., & Gassama, S. K. (2017). Empowering children with adaptive technology skills: careful engagement in the digital information age. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education9(3), 693-708. Available Google Scholar

Rutten, M., Ros, A., Kuijpers, M., & Kreijns, K. (2016). Usefulness of social network sites for adolescents’ development of online career skills. Journal of Educational Technology & Society19(4), 140.

Learning and teaching in a 21st Century Context

Remember and reflect

Remember almost 20 years ago when the 20th Century was drawing to a close and people lived in anticipation about what the 21st Century would look like?

Perhaps you are too young to remember this, or have a clear image of differences between life then and now. If so ask an older friend, relative or study partner.

What was life like then compared to now? Does this matter in terms of junior secondary education?

In some ways life is just the same but in other ways the change has been drastic.

Sit down, have a cup of tea (so last century), coffee, water or whatever helps you relax and think.

Now, list things that you have now but didn’t have at the turn of the century(or ask the nominated older helper if you are too young to remember).

Many schools are still designed and function in a 20th Century model of education.

They focus on teaching to the industrial model while the world is not in the technological age.

Sir Ken Roberts is a key figure in discussions on this topic, watch his TED talk by clicking here:

Some interesting points about education, creativity and ADHD – what do you think?

The starting point for learning and teaching is to understand the social context and the ability to respect different perspectives.  Teachers and students often have different contexts, perspectives and understandings about how, where and what should be learned as part of school education. This module focuses on the ‘who’, without it there is no how, where or what.

What is important for education in the 21st Century Junior Secondary classroom?

What is important to 21st Century learners?

Many schools are still designed and function in a 20th Century model of education.

They focus on teaching to the industrial model while the world is not in the technological age.

Sir Ken Roberts is a key figure in discussions on this topic, watch his TED talk by clicking here:

Some interesting points about education, creativity and ADHD – what do you think?

The starting point for learning and teaching is to understand the social context and the ability to respect different perspectives.  Teachers and students often have different contexts, perspectives and understandings about how, where and what should be learned as part of school education. This module focuses on the ‘who’, without it there is no how, where or what.

What is important for education in the 21st Century Junior Secondary classroom?

What is important to 21st Century learners?

Who are 21st Century learners?

As junior secondary teachers the students you work with will have been born in the 21st Century. They do not know a time before hand held mobile devices, social media and WiFi. Their level of experience with these technologies will depend on several factors, including socio-economic and cultural factors, that will influence their access. This is important since we often assume a high level of experience with digital technology but this is not true for all students.

Technology changes education in several ways, students are sometimes more tech savvy than their teachers, they are used to having 24/7 access to stimulus material (although some parents do restrict access), information is attainable in an instant (although not all of it would pass the rigour test) and technology has changed society so that the traditional jobs market is significantly different (although we will still need plumbers).

A much repeated slogan is that we don’t know what we are preparing students for in terms of career and employment and this is worth noting because students are looking for an education that will set them up for a good life. As prompts for discussion about this I am pointing you in the direction of YouTube clips.

Please watch the following video’s, each has associated focus question to guide your overall response

YouTube URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c0xa98cy-Rw

  • What are your thoughts?
  • What is the role of a teacher for 21st Century learners?
  • This video is almost last decade – is the message still relevant?

Schools as a factory model of education/changing the model

What Will Schools Look Like in the Future?

YouTube URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JZlgYiXzu58

  • What are your thoughts?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of this type of schooling?

Junior Secondary Schooling and Middle Schooling

The terms Junior Secondary Schooling and Middle Schooling are often used interchangeably but they are quite different philosphies. Traditionally Junior Secondary Education is designed with discreet subjects while Middle Schooling has a more integrated approach. This unit aims to provide insight into pedagogical approaches and teaching strategies for adolescent learners that are relevant to either philosophy.

For interest the following links provide documents on middle schooling in States and Territories around Australia.  If you haven’t reviewed these in previous studies it may be useful to have a look at the documents most relevant to you.

The New South Wales Department of Education and Training produced Our Middle Years Learners – Engaged, Resilient, Successful: An Education Strategy for Years 5-9 in NSW 2006 – 2009, 2006. NSW Department of Education and Training, Sydney.

The Northern Territory conducted a community consultation on middle schooling and implementation. A review of  O’Sullivan’s report of 2005 is useful here.

Queensland terminology refers to the middle phase of learning being Years 4 – 9 with more information available of the Queensland Department of Education, Training and Employment website

South Australia term years 6 – 9 as the Middle Years of Schooling and the framework can be accessed at the linked website.

Victoria considers years 5 – 8 as middle school, the Middle Years Pedagogy Research and Development Project (MYPRAD) provides insight into their strategy for planning and implementing pedagogical changes.

The Western Australian Middle School Association provides information on middle schooling in that state.

Further information and links to research can be found at the Aussie Educator Middle Years of Schooling Website.

 

The information age

Adolescents you will be teaching were born in the 21st Century, the Information Age.

Are you prepared to teach them?

How will you facilitate learning and teaching self and students in the Information Age:·         To keep up with technology (ethically, responsibly and creatively)

·         To communicate effectively (locally, globally and responsibly)

·         To understand the impact of multimedia and media (‘fake’ news, ‘real’ news, ‘truth’ statements)

·         To critique the plethora of information and understand the source.

How will you be a positive role model in the Information Age:

·         Living in an era of speed, stimulus and vast amounts of information at our fingertips

·         Living in an era of global economies

·         Living in an era of global news streams

What do you do in the Information Age:

·         Do you use technology?

·         Have a smart phone?

·         Use social media?

·         Surf the web?

·         Where do you get your information?

·         Read the news?

How will you teach me in the 21st century?

YouTube URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rvyP-cwpHN8

Reflect on your experiences as a student, an adult and as a pre-service teacher:

  • How do you engage with technology?
  • Did you grow up with technology?
  • How would you ‘cope’ with technology in the classroom?
  • How could you enhance technology in the classroom, even beyond your own abilities?

Teaching the 21st Century Learner

YouTube URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTWTKDdw8f4

 

Do you agree?·         “We must meet them in their learning space”

·         “Guide them through the sea of information”

·         Make the 21st Century classroom a different learning space?

Read and think

The need for student voice and agency

What does it mean to have agency?

What does the term ‘student agency’ mean?

By this time in your studies I hope you have heard the terms ‘student centred and ‘teacher centred’ and understand not only what they mean but the implications for learning and teaching in an educational setting.

Student agency and student voice are related to understanding and recognising the needs and rights of an adolescent in your classroom. Chapter 5 of your text provides insight into ways to nurture student agency and a student centred classroom and reading this will help you understand the terms and benefits for students and teachers.

Your pedagogical approach in the classroom determines whether you are nurturing student agency and it is important to understand the  importance of giving students a fair go in your classroom.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have developed a learning framework that aims to build common understanding of educational development towards 2030. A key component of that development is student agency for all ages. The most recent position paper is worth reviewing.

Student agency. The curriculum should be designed around students to motivate them and recognise their prior knowledge, skills, attitudes and values (OECD, 2018).

The paper also discusses teacher agency and explains that teachers should be empowered to use their professional knowledge, skills and expertise to deliver the curriculum effectively (OECD, 2018)

The importance of student or learner agency is that school is generally a training ground for life and so it can play a key role in supporting individuals to develop agency. The following is an excerpt from the  OECD position paper.

 Agency implies a sense ofresponsibility to participate in the world and, in so doing, to influence people, events and circumstances for the better.Agency requires the ability to frame a guiding purpose and identify actions to achieve a goal.To help enable agency, educators must not only recognise learners’ individuality, but also acknowledge the wider set ofrelationships – with their teachers, peers, families and communities – that influence their learning. A concept underlyingthe learning framework is “co-agency” – the interactive, mutually supportive relationships that help learners to progresstowards their valued goals. In this context, everyone should be considered a learner, not only students but also teachers,school managers, parents and communities.Two factors, in particular, help learners enable agency. The first is a personalised learning environment that supportsand motivates each student to nurture his or her passions, make connections between different learning experiences andopportunities, and design their own learning projects and processes in collaboration with others. The second is buildinga solid foundation: literacy and numeracy remain crucial. In the era of digital transformation and with the advent of bigdata, digital literacy and data literacy are becoming increasingly essential, as are physical health and mental well-being.   (OECD, 2018, p.4).

use the discussion board to share ideas about how to establish a classroom culture that meets the needs of the OECD learning framework. How possible and practical do you see this for Australian Schools.

Before you move onto Module 2 please review Learning Theories from the link here so you remember these in relation to adolescence, think about them in terms of as well as pedagogical needs.

MODULE 2

Module readings

Bell, S. (2010). Project-based learning for the 21st century: Skills for the future. The Clearing House83(2), 39-43.

Häkkinen, P., Järvelä, S., Mäkitalo-Siegl, K., Ahonen, A., Näykki, P., & Valtonen, T. (2017). Preparing teacher-students for twenty-first-century learning practices (PREP 21): a framework for enhancing collaborative problem-solving and strategic learning skills. Teachers and Teaching23(1), 25-41.

Hashweh, M. (2005) Teacher pedagogical constructions: a reconfiguration of pedagogical content knowledge, Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 11(3), p 273 – 292

Hofer, M. J., Bell, L., Bull, G. L., Barry III, R. Q., Cohen, J. D., Garcia, N., … & Kjellstrom, W. (2015). Practitioner’s Guide to Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge (TPACK): Rich Media Cases of Teacher Knowledge. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education. Access from Google Scholar

Lefebvre, S., Samson, G., Gareau, A., & Brouillette, N. (2016). TPACK in Elementary and High School Teachers’ Self-Reported Classroom Practices with the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB). Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology42(5).

 

Lund-Diaz, S., Montane, M., & Beery, P. (2016). “How”—The Key to Knowledge-Building Pedagogy Success in Supporting Paradigm Shifts for Student Growth and the 4Cs of Future Education. In Google It (pp. 353-362). Springer New York

 

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15 (2), 4-14.

Schulman, L. S. (1987).  Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the new reform.  Harvard Educational Review, 57 (1), 1-22.

Everything pedagogical

Sir Ken Robinson is a leading thinker on education, creativity and innovation who argues that it is an economic imperative

in a world where imagination and innovation are crucial to the future.

Think about what Robinson says when you are pondering on the role of a teacher in the 21st Century.

Pedagogies

Relationships are important

Particularly when you are working with adolescent students who are undergoing physical, emotional and psychological changes as they grow from childhood into early adulthood.  At this age people are experiencing increased social awareness and often self-consciousness and their thinking is changing to reflect some personal and social issues, including sex, drugs, war, climate change, and their developing identity in a globally changing world.

Middle school models aims to provide a transition for students moving from the primary to secondary environment.

While some junior secondary schools follow these principles the philosophy differs and varies between educational settings.

From the beginning of school students have experiences learning in a classroom with an integrated curriculum where the home room generalist teacher taught and integrated across most curricular subjects.  In primary years specialist teachers tend to come into the class for a couple of lessons a week to teach art, music or physical education.

In traditional secondary school models, students move from the integrated primary environment and introduced to a quite different environment where specialist teachers teach ‘subjects’ . The connection between individual subjects in secondary schools is sometimes lost for students but with effective learning and teaching practices this can be avoided.

Middle schooling aims to transition between the integrated to the subject specific and while there are several models in
Australia most middle schools tend to have generalist and specialist teachers.

Junior secondary schools tend to have specialist teachers only, each specialising in one or two subject areas.

Specialist teachers tend to be content experts as well as having sound pedagogical content knowledge for the teaching area.

Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)

Hashweh and PCK
According to Hashweh (2005) Pedagogical Content Knowledge   “is a set or repertoire of private and personal content specific general event-based as well as story based pedagogical constructions that the experienced teacher had developed as a result of repeated planning and teaching of, and reflection on the teaching of, the most regularly taught topics.”The following assertions are incorporated into this definition:

1. PCK represents personal and private knowledge

2. PCK is a collection of basic units called Teacher Pedagogical Constructions (TPCs).

3. Teacher pedagogical constructions result mainly from planning, but also from the interactive and post active stages of teachings.

4. Pedagogical constructions result from an inventive process that is influenced by the interaction of knowledge and beliefs from different categories.

5. Pedagogical constructions constitute both a generalised event based and story based kind of memory.

6. Pedagogical constructions are topic specific.

7. Pedagogical constructions are (or ideally should be) labeled in a multiple interesting ways that connect them to other categories and subcategories of teacher knowledge and beliefs.

A key point for beginning teachers is that PCK and its component TPCs comes from experience: more experienced teachers need to do less explicit planning of their lessons because they KNOW what they’ve done in the past.  The more thoughtful your planning and the deeper your reflections (both during and after teaching a topic) the quicker you will acquire PCK.

 

READ

Hashweh, M. (2005) Teacher pedagogical constructions: a reconfiguration of pedagogical content knowledge, Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 11(3),p 273 – 292

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15 (2), 4-14.

Schulman, L. S. (1987).  Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the new reform.  Harvard Educational Review, 57 (1), 1-22.

 

Applying PCK in the middle school

 

Consolidate your understanding of PCK/TPCs by applying your knowledge to a teaching scenario Think about a topic (e.g. photosynthesis, World War 2, probability) you have taught in the past or would like to teach in the future (perhaps a topic you will choose for the unit of work assignment for this unit).

Draw up a table with the following headings and fill in your ideas (I have provided an example in red) – this can be a good way to start planning your unit of work for the assignment.

 

Table 1: Planning for teaching
Topic subject matter – link to curriculum
(what do students need to learn)
PCK/TPC you will use
– ways of representing the knowledge
– probable student learning difficulties with the knowledge
Pedagogical Knowledge you will use
Topic is Migration, focusing on child migrants from Britain in the 20th Century.
Australian Curriculum: History ACHHK114 – Experiences of Australian Democracy, including the status and rights of Aboriginal People
Representation of knowledge through film (Oranges and Sunshine, 2010); media (coverage of news from the past and in recent times); Australian and British Government apologies to the forgotten Australian; Child Migrants Trust Website; Child Migration Fact sheet from the National Library of Australia; Child Migration Research Network Website (to review current child migration).Potential student learning difficulties (common misconceptions or mistakes) with this topic include confusion over stolen generation of Indigenous children and stolen generation of child migrants from Britain (although similarities do exist).  Other issues can be misconceptions around whether children in care were ‘better off’ to come to Australia for a new life since their parents could not look after them.  Rather than this being a ‘closing’ point it can be used to open discussion on values and norms in society. Inquiry learning process
constructivist approach to teaching and learning
Mind Mapping
Facilitating discussions
Blooms technology
Graphic Organisers

It may be a good idea to talk to your mentor or other experienced teachers about their development of PCK and pedagogical approach to teaching and learning in the middle school classroom.

 

Pedagogies of engagement

 

While a literature review conducted by the ACT Department of Education indicates that that there is insufficient data to investigate whether student outcomes are enhanced by the middle school model.  A test (PISA Survey 2000) conducted by the Organisation for Economic Development (OECD) indicates certain factors do improve schooling for middle school students:

  • quality teacher student relations
  • positive disciplinary climate of the classroom
  • high expectations from teachers on students
  • high teacher morale and commitment
  • school autonomy

The report also indicates that the impact of individual classroom teachers on Emphasis on middle school students is well recorded in literature.

Other studies indicate that the following are important for student learning in the middle years:

  • high expectations of students
  • interesting curriculum and pedagogy
  • caring teachers
  • safe environment (risks can be taken safely with teacher and class discussion and decision)
  • teachers, administrators, students and parents working together as a learning community

As an individual classroom teacher how can you ensure the condition for teaching and learning in your classroom are favorable for students?

What is the difference between interesting pedagogy and interesting curriculum?

What control will you have over pedagogy and curriculum as a classroom teacher?

Pedagogies for the 21st Century

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPaCK)

TPaCK is a model for identifying the intersection of knowledge domains – technological knowledge, subject content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge – with the aim to effectively engage students in innovative teaching and learning experiences.

TPaCK can help you plan and prepare innovative and engaging learning experiences for 21st Century learners.

TPaCK.org provides an online information exchange and social media site for teachers.

Click here for more information about TPaCK

Click here for more information and video on TPaCK

 

Suggested Readings:

Di Blas, N., Paolini, P., Sawaya, S., & Mishra, P. (2014, March). Distributed TPACK: going beyond knowledge in the head. In society for information technology & teacher education international conference (Vol. 2014, No. 1, pp. 2464-2472).

 

Hofer, M. J., Bell, L., Bull, G. L., Barry III, R. Q., Cohen, J. D., Garcia, N., … & Kjellstrom, W. (2015). Practitioner’s Guide to Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge (TPACK): Rich Media Cases of Teacher Knowledge. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.

 

Lefebvre, S., Samson, G., Gareau, A., & Brouillette, N. (2016). TPACK in Elementary and High School Teachers’ Self-Reported Classroom Practices with the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB). Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology42(5).

 

Build on the earlier activity where you created a table to demonstrate how you would apply PCK by adding on the technological elements.

Be brave and come up with some adventurous ideas to share with the group in the Blog – remember you can use these activities as opportunities to trial ideas that you can use in assessments.  Always good to get some peer review and discussion to help sharpen your thinking, these are

 

TPACK in 2 Minutes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FagVSQlZELY

 

21st Century super skill

 

\ Partnerships for 21st Century Skills (P21) explain the Four Cs of the 21st century, describing them as the most important skills for 21st Century Education.The fours ‘super skills’ are:

Creativity

Communication

Collaboration

Critical thinking

The P21 website has a great deal of information and if you would like a quick overview please click here

From this page you can download the P21 Framework document and glossary.

You can also access notes on each of the 4Cs by clicking on the image below.

 

What are 4c’s ?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QrEEVZa3f98

Reading:

Lund-Diaz, S., Montane, M., & Beery, P. (2016). “How”—The Key to Knowledge-Building Pedagogy Success in Supporting Paradigm Shifts for Student Growth and the 4Cs of Future Education. In Google It (pp. 353-362). Springer New York

 

  • How does the Australian Curriculum articulate the need for 21st Century learning and teaching?
  • Describe how you could integrate the 4Cs into your teaching practices.
  • Reflect on your experiences as a learner – how well are the 4Cs represented in your experiences?

 

Productive pedagogies – Dimensions of Learning (DoL)

Dimensions of learning is a model for developing innovative, engaging and student centered learning experiences.  The model applies educational research and theoretical frameworks to define the learning process and provide a tool for implementing in teaching practice.  The model focuses on dimensions for learning and include confidence and independence, skills and strategies, knowledge and understanding, prior and emerging experiences, reflection and in some descriptions creativity, imagination and originality (a bit reflective of the 4Cs).For insight into dimensions of learning go to

http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/197133/chapters/Introduction.aspx

And watch the following You Tube clip

 

What is the Dimensions of Learning framework

YouTube URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yuHMOVXenxg

The  Learning Design Process is available online and useful for guidance on designing learning experiences.

The model can be used in its entirety but can also be used as a guide, the Learning Design Process is particularly useful even if not using all aspects of the DoL model.

Problem Based Learning (PBL)

Problem Based Learning is recognised globally as an authentic approach to development of integrative and transformative learning experiences.  The starting point for learning is a problem which needs to be solved.  Students are supported and scaffolded to discover what they need to know and what skills they require to resolve the problem.

PBL fits very well into middle school philosophy which tends to have a holistic and integrated approach to learning and teaching but is less suited to the traditional segregation of subjects in junior secondary settings.

New South Wales Department of Education has a toolkit for developing PBL experiences – https://cms.pre.det.nsw.edu.au/teaching-and-learning/curriculum/learning-for-the-future/futures-learning/learning-and-teaching/project-based-learning-toolkit

PBL tends to have a team approach within which PCK, TPaCK and even dimensions of leanring can be applied.

Blooms Taxonomy in the 21st Century

Bloom’s Taxonomy was created in 1956 by a team led by Dr Benjamin Bloom to provide guidance for development of higher order thinking.  The taxonomy remains important in 21st Century but there have been some revisions since it first appeared.

The Original Domains of the Taxonomy were Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating and Creating and worked within 3 dimensions of learning – Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor.  The Taxonomy was revised as demonstrated in the image below:

 

Full detail of the taxonomy can be found by clicking here

You might find watching the following videos more interesting.

 

 

Take three minutes out to listen to this story about the circle of caring…

Who are your students going to be?

In this 3-minute talk, cartoonist and educator Jok Church tells a moving story of the teacher who cared for him when no one else did — and how he returned the favor.

Jok Church is the creator of the science-education comic strip “You Can With Beakman and Jax” and the zany TV series “Beakman’s World.” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vygS-FKXms4

Is this the question you were looking for? If so, place your order here to get started!