Diversity in Organizations

Congleton, R. & Ostrom, E. (2005). Understanding Institutional Diversity. Public Choice, 132 (3-4); 509-511.
The purpose of this article was to develop a set of strategies to mitigate the serious issues faced by organizations concerning the losses of the commons. Before trying to develop strategies to manage a diverse workforce, the authors acknowledge that there is need to first have a full understanding of the institution which entails understanding the hierarchy of rules, the members constituting the diverse pool among others (Congleton & Ostrom, 2005). This will then make it possible for the organization to clearly understand the necessary steps that need to be undertaken to mitigate loss of the commons.
The authors employed game theory in analyzing institutions. In this section they identified individual actors, specify motives, describe rule of behavior as well as outlining possible outcomes. To them outcomes can be linked to “economic efficiency equity, flexibility as well as accountability” (Congleton & Ostrom, 2005: 510)
The researchers used a variety of methods to collect data for instance they employed face to face communication, laboratory experiments as well as repeat contracting. The researchers established that in a diverse organization there are collective-action problems as well as social dilemmas in resource use. The effects of competition, problem with poor communication and limited cognitive process are addressed. Additionally the article discusses collective action, issues of the common pool as well as how heterogeneity influences the use of resources. It is worth noting that the authors have talked about strategies, norms and rules and contend that they are very important concepts to any organization. The manner with which the three concepts are implemented directly impacts on the success of institution in improving the welfare of human subjects.
According to Congleton & Ostrom, 2005 another important finding is non group members are not given access to resources while the group members are given which helps in reducing competitive pressure. However, there is need for more to be done. According to the authors, majority of common-pool issues can be dealt with through local collective action; however this might not be successful if the group is very big and heterogeneous. Lastly “clear definition of boundaries, rational balance between benefits and costs, effective monitoring, sanctions as well as conflict resolution mechanisms are useful in dealing with a diverse organization” (Congleton & Ostrom, 2005: 509)
There is a direct link between this article and my final project. The framework used, methods used to collect data as well as the findings will be used to beef up my final project. The most important part is the strategies that can be adopted to successfully manage a common pool (Congleton & Ostrom, 2005).
Wentling, R. & Palma-Rivas, N. (1998). Current status and future trends of diversity initiatives in the workplace: Diversity experts’ perspective. Human Resource Development Quarterly 9 (3), 235-253.
The main purpose of the article was to establish the current status as well as future trends in diversity initiatives in the place of work. To accomplish this, the authors have looked into problems faced by diverse groups in terms of promotion, retention, career development among others.
The methods the researchers used to collect relevant data was through telephone interviews. This is where a sample of 12 experts was selected and contacted by telephone. This method has its advantages and disadvantages. For instance it ensures that data collected is authentic. However, it is expensive and data analysis is challenging (Wentling & Palma-Rivas, 1998).
As suggested by Wentling & Palma-Rivas, 1998 the major reasons pushing organizations to manage diverse workforce is to improve productivity, gain competitive advantage, forming better relationships among the workforce, enhancing social responsibility as well as dealing with legal issues. Wentling and Palma-Rivas have dedicated their efforts in presenting the best strategies that organizations can adopt while trying to manage workplace diversity (Wentling & Palma-Rivas, 1998). For instance the importance of employee training and development has been brought out clearly as one approach suitable in managing a diverse workforce. Others include open and effective communication, developing a culture where employees show respect to each others, managing performance among others.
The last section of the article concerns future trend relating to diversity as well as what constitute an effective diversity training program. Wentling & Palma-Rivas, 1998 agree that organization should brace themselves to handle a more diverse workforce since free movement of human capital is a continuous aspect. The success of handling a diverse workforce will indeed dictate the future success of a given firm. The training programs should have a number of attributes such as be conducted in a safe environment where workers are not judged, content for the training should be a combination of awareness, information among other.
The findings of the article will form a basis for my final project, for instance I found the definition for a diverse work force in this article being clear and simple. Additionally the methodology section is important as it gives me a limelight on what should be done when collecting primary data. While discussing my findings, I will also try to link with the findings of this great article.

References
Congleton, R. & Ostrom, E. (2005). Understanding institutional diversity. Public Choice, 132 (34), 509-511.
Wentling, R. & Palma-Rivas, N. (1998) Current status and future trends of diversity initiatives in the workplace: Diversity experts’ perspective. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 9 (3), 235-253.

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