 Explain the key phenological stages of the grapevine
 Discuss how key phenological stages may be assessed in the field.
 Discuss the challenge of determining the Eichhorn -Lorenz stage 38 ‘berries, harvest
ripe’ as a phenological stage.
 Evaluate why it is important to understand phenological development (crop
management, climate change, seasonal weather impacts)
 Explain the role of temperatures in development and of thermal time in determining
the appearance of phenological stages
 Explain differences among different climate regions and cultivars
 Discuss other environmental and management factors that have been shown to
influence the timing of key phenological stages.
 Discuss the importance of understanding phenology in the context of climate change

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